timeline

War of 1812 Timeline

The war of 1812 was a military conflict between the United States and Great Britain. As a colony of Great Britain, Canada was swept up in the War of 1812 and was invaded a number of times by the Americans. This timeline allows you to explore important events that occurred during the War of 1812 (which ended in 1815), as well as significant events that happened before and after the war.

The Battle of New Orleans, by Moran

January 01, 1677

First Nations 

Silver Covenant Chain Treaty

This wampum treaty between Britain and the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) people represented an open and honest communication between two peoples. Subsequent wampum treaties reinforce this idea, as well as the idea of mutual interest and peace. Such wampum treaties oblige the parties to help each other, in war if necessary, should they be asked.

September 03, 1783

Historical Context 

Treaty of Paris 1783

This treaty ended the American Revolution, recognizing the independence of the American colonies. The boundary between British and American territories was set along the St. Lawrence River and through the Great Lakes. Post-war life in the United States was very difficult for British Loyalists, who endured property loss and discrimination. Many left and began to arrive in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Québec and Ontario. Famous migrant Loyalists include Lieutenant James Moody, Laura Secord and Richard Pierpoint.

January 01, 1789

War on the Great Lakes 

Kingston Navy Yard

Kingston's navy yard was established and acted as the headquarters of the Provincial Marine's Lake Ontario fleet. During the War of 1812 a large number of naval ships were built there.

February 07, 1792

Lieutenant-Governor John Graves Simcoe

Historical Context 

Simcoe Encourages Immigration

John Graves Simcoe, the first lieutenant-governor of Upper Canada, issued a land grant proclamation that encouraged American immigration to Upper Canada. By the War of 1812, more than half of the population of the colony would be American born.

February 01, 1793

Historical Context 

Anglo-French War Commences

Arising from the French Revolution, which began in 1789, the war between Britain and France continued with only short pauses until 1815.

August 20, 1794

First Nations 

Battle of Fallen Timbers

An American force under General Anthony Wayne defeated a force of Shawnee, Ottawa, Chippewa and Potawatomi warriors and some Canadian militia in the Ohio region. After the battle American forces destroyed the First Nations’ fields and villages.

August 03, 1795

First Nations 

The Treaty of Greenville

A treaty between the United States and the Shawnee, Delaware, Ottawa, Potawatomi, Wyandot, Miami, Chippewa, Kickapoo, Wea, Piankashaw and Kaskaskia following the Battle of Fallen Timbers that forced them to cede most of Ohio.

November 16, 1798

Historical Context 

US Sloop Boarded by British

The Royal Navy boarded the sloop USS Baltimore and impressed 55 of her crew. Fifty were subsequently freed, but there was much outrage at this violation of American sovereignty.

January 01, 1799

First Nations  People 

John Norton (Teyoninhokarawen) appointed diplomat and war chief

The son of a Cherokee father and Scottish mother, Norton came to Canada as a soldier and eventually began living at Onondaga on the Grand River. He was adopted by the Mohawk nation, and in the War of 1812 recruited hundreds of Six Nations and Delaware warriors to help defend the Niagara Frontier from American invasion.

October 24, 1799

Historical Context 

Arrival of Reinforcements at Québec

The first battalion of the 41st regiment arrived at Québec.

October 21, 1805

Historical Context 

Battle of Trafalgar

The Royal Navy defeated the combined Franco-Spanish fleet at the Battle of Trafalgar, thwarting Napoleon’s invasion of Great Britain.

April 25, 1806

Historical Context 

US Neutrality Violated

The HMS Leander fired on the American merchantman Richard in an effort to stop it for inspection, killing an American seaman.

January 01, 1807

First Nations  People 

John Brant (Dekarihokenh, Ahyonwaeghs, Ahyouwaeghs) moves to Grand River

After the death of his father, Joseph Brant, John Brant moved to the Grand River reservation with his mother. Brant became a Six Nations war chief and, along with John Norton, recruited warriors for service in the Niagara Region during the War of 1812.

June 22, 1807

Historical Context 

The Chesapeake-Leopard Affair

British frigate HMS Leopard attacked USS Chesapeake looking for British-born sailors. British crew boarded the American ship and forced one sailor into service with the Royal Navy. The incident brought American outrage against forced service in the British navy to a peak and became a major factor in the declaration of war.

August 24, 1807

Historical Context 

Trade Suspended

Trade between British North America and the United States was suspended. However, Saint John, Halifax and Shelburne were designated free ports in which American shipping was welcome.

November 11, 1807

Historical Context 

British Trade Restrictions

To increase the economic pressure on France, the British government issued orders-in-council forbidding foreign vessels from trading with European ports unless they first called at a British port or were inspected on the high seas.

December 17, 1807

Historical Context 

Milan Decree

Napoleon issued the Milan Decree, declaring that any vessel landing at a British port would be subject to seizure.

December 22, 1807

Historical Context 

Embargo Act

The US Congress passed the Embargo Act to protect its own shipping rights, further raising international tensions.

March 01, 1809

Historical Context 

Resumption of Trade

President Thomas Jefferson authorized the Non-Intercourse Act, effectively repealing the Embargo Act and allowing the resumption of all trade except that with Britain and France.

March 04, 1809

People 

Madison Inaugurated President

James Madison was inaugurated as President of the United States. The War of 1812 would become known as "Mr. Madison's War."

May 01, 1810

Historical Context 

Congress Restores Trade

Congress restored trade with Britain and France through Macon’s Bill No. 2 but promised to stop trading with the enemy of the first power to remove its restrictions against neutral shipping.

November 02, 1810

Historical Context 

Madison Gives Ultimatum

Announcing that France had rescinded its decrees against neutral shipping, President Madison gave Britain three months to follow suit.

February 05, 1811

Historical Context 

Prince Regent Replaces King George III

The Prince Regent (the future King George IV) replaced his ailing father, King George III, as ruler of Great Britain.

March 02, 1811

Historical Context 

US Adopts Non-Import Law

The United States adopted another non-importation law aimed at Great Britain.

May 01, 1811

Historical Context 

British Frigate Guerrière Stops American Brig

The Royal Navy frigate HMS Guerrière stopped the American brig Spitfire off Sandy Hook, New Jersey, and impressed an American sailor.

May 16, 1811

Historical Context 

US Attacks Royal Navy

Mistaking the sloop HMS Little Belt for HMS Guerrière, the USS President opened fire on Little Belt off the North Carolina coast, killing 9 British sailors and wounding 23.

September 30, 1811

Isaac Brock, military hero

People 

Major-General Brock Appointed

On this day Major-General Sir Isaac Brock took the oaths of office as president and administrator of Upper Canada. He was also commander of its armed forces. Brock went on to defend against American attacks, and enlisted the support of Tecumseh’s Western Confederacy and other Aboriginal allies.

November 01, 1811

Historical Context 

British Restrict Trade

British orders-in-council restricted US trade with the West Indies.

November 04, 1811

Historical Context 

The 12th US Congress Opens

It became known as the War Congress. New members from southern and western districts such as Kentucky, Tennessee and South Carolina pushed for war to defend America’s honour and were dubbed “War Hawks.”

November 07, 1811

First Nations 

The Battle of Tippecanoe

William Henry Harrison, governor of the Indiana Territory, attacked Tecumseh's Western Confederacy at the Shawnee village of Prophetstown, Indiana. Angered, Tecumseh entered an alliance with Britain as a means to counter American expansion into their lands.

November 08, 1811

First Nations 

Americans Burn Prophetstown

After the Battle of Tippecanoe a force of US regulars and militia led by Governor William Henry Harrison burned the First Nations community of Prophetstown.

February 01, 1812

Prevost, Sir George

Historical Context 

Glengarry Light Infantry Formed

British Commander-in-Chief Sir George Prevost ordered the recruitment of a regiment of fencible infantry from the eastern districts of Upper Canada. The resulting unit, the Glengarry Light Infantry, saw much action across the province during the war.

April 04, 1812

Historical Context 

New Militia Law

The Lower Canada legislature passed a new militia law, leading to an eventual force of approximately 50,000 militiamen in the province.

April 15, 1812

Colonel Charles de Salaberry

People 

Salaberry Appointed

Charles-Michel de Salaberry was appointed head of a corps of Voltigeurs. Born in Beauport, Québec, Salaberry was an officer in the British army who set up a militia corps made up primarily of French Canadians that was known as the Canadian Voltigeurs.

April 18, 1812

Historical Context 

Creation of the Voltigeurs

The Provincial Corps of Light Infantry, les Voltigeurs canadiens, was created.

May 09, 1812

War on the Great Lakes 

The Royal Newfoundland Fencibles Mobilize

The Royal Newfoundland Regiment of Fencible Infantry, a provincial unit formed in 1803, was ordered into Upper Canada to form five companies for naval service in protection of the Great Lakes.

June 05, 1812

War on the Great Lakes 

USS Oneida Seizes British Schooner

On Lake Ontario the USS Oneida seized the British schooner Lord Nelson on suspicion of smuggling and took it to Sackets Harbor, New York.

June 20, 1812

Historical Context 

President Madison Declares War

Unaware of the British decision to suspend orders-in-council against neutral shipping, President Madison signed a declaration of war against Britain.

June 23, 1812

Historical Context 

Britain Suspends Orders-in-Council

After a winter of great privation, Britain suspended the orders-in-council against neutral shipping.

July 01, 1812

First Nations 

Neutrality Agreement with First Nations

New Brunswick authorities negotiated agreements of neutrality with the Passamaquoddy and Maliseet First Nations.

July 02, 1812

Western Region 

Capture of the Cuyahoga Packet

Lieutenant Frederic Rolette, a French Canadian officer of the Provincial Marine, captured the American schooner Cuyahoga Packet on the Detroit River. Rolette's crew found supplies, soldiers and American plans for invading Canada aboard the vessel.

July 04, 1812

Atlantic and Gulf Coasts 

First American Prisoners

The first American prisoners of war were received at Melville Island Prison, Halifax.

July 12, 1812

Western Region 

General William Hull's American army invades Upper Canada

With thousands of American troops under his command, American General William Hull invaded Upper Canada at Sandwich (present-day Windsor), proclaiming his invasion as liberating the Canadians. However, his army quickly turned the inhabitants against it by looting farms and burning homes.

July 12, 1812

Western Region 

François Bâby House

Invading American forces under William Hull took over the large, elegant house of François Bâby, a prominent French Canadian leader in southwestern Upper Canada, and used it as a base. They later retreated, and the house was then used as a headquarters by the British and Canadians.

July 16, 1812

Western Region 

Skirmish at the River Canard, Upper Canada

Advanced units of Hull’s invading army attacked a British picket, which fell back to Amherstburg. Two British soldiers were accidentally left behind, and they defended their position until they were captured. One of them, Private Hancock, died of his injuries that evening, becoming the war’s first British casualty.

July 17, 1812

Western Region 

Fort Michilimackinac Captured

Fort Mackinac, located on Mackinac Island in the straits between Lake Huron and Lake Michigan, was captured by a force of 400 Sioux, Menominee, Winnebago, Odawa and Ojibwe warriors, 200 fur traders and some 50 British regulars. The victory underlined the need for Britain to ally with Aboriginal nations.

July 17, 1812

Atlantic and Gulf Coasts 

British Capture USS Nautilus

A British naval squadron captured the USS Nautilus off the New Jersey coast. Nautilus was the first US vessel captured by the British during the war.

July 18, 1812

Atlantic and Gulf Coasts 

USS Constitution Escapes

The USS Constitution escaped a British naval squadron consisting of HMS Shannon, Africa, Belvidera, Guerrière and Aeolus near New York City.

August 05, 1812

First Nations 

Battle of Brownstown, Michigan

Tecumseh led an attack on a force from General William Hull's army at Detroit sent to meet a supply column from Ohio. Hull's troops were repulsed and returned to Detroit without the supplies, and dispatches from Hull showing his tenuous position at Detroit were captured.

August 15, 1812

Western Region 

Withdrawal from Fort Dearborn

After withdrawing from Fort Dearborn (Illinois) the American garrison was ambushed by a force of mainly Potawatomi warriors, and the entire garrison was either killed or captured.

August 16, 1812

The Meeting of Brock and Tecumseh

Western Region 

Brock Captures Detroit

Forces led by Shawnee chief Tecumseh and Major-General Brock, including members of the Shawnee, Delaware, Chippewa, Mississauga, Wyandot and Ottawa, secured the surrender of Fort Detroit, thereby solidifying the alliance between the Western Confederacy and Britain.

August 19, 1812

Atlantic and Gulf Coasts 

HMS Guerrière Sinks

The USS Constitution sank the HMS Guerrière. This Atlantic naval victory was a morale boost to the American public and Congress. This was one of 26 naval actions on the high seas during the War of 1812, half of which were American victories.

September 03, 1812

First Nations 

Raid on Pigeon Roost

Kickapoo warriors attacked the American town of Pigeon Roost, in Indiana Territory, killing over twenty settlers.

September 03, 1812

First Nations 

First Nations Besiege Fort Harrison

Warriors from the Kickapoo, Miami, Potawatomi, Shawnee and Winnebago nations unsuccessfully besieged Fort Harrison, Indiana, for thirteen days.

September 04, 1812

Western Region 

British Advance on Fort Wayne

A British expedition under Brevet Major Adam Muir advanced on Fort Wayne, Indiana, but retreated when confronted by a larger force under American General James Winchester.

September 05, 1812

Western Region 

Siege of Fort Madison

Warriors led by Black Hawk failed to take the small American post of Fort Madison, Iowa, after a three-day effort.

September 05, 1812

Western Region 

Siege of Fort Wayne Begins

Potawatomi forces under Chiefs Five Medals and Winnemac unsuccessfully invested the American post of Fort Wayne, Indiana. The siege lasted until 12 September 1812.

September 21, 1812

St. Lawrence Region 

American Raid on Gananoque

An American raid on Gananoque, Upper Canada, destroyed food supplies, captured ammunition, and showed the vulnerability of the British supply line.

October 01, 1812

Niagara Region 

Runchey's Corps is Formed, Upper Canada

In October 1812, Captain Robert Runchey (a white Niagara tavern owner) was put in charge of a small corps of free coloured men raised for defence on the Niagara Frontier. Sometimes called the Coloured or Black Corps, it totalled about 50 men and saw service throughout the war, including participation at the Battle of Queenston Heights.

October 04, 1812

St. Lawrence Region 

Raid on Ogdensburg

British and Canadian troops assaulted Ogdensburg, New York, in retaliation for the 21 September 1812 attack on Gananoque, but were repulsed.

October 13, 1812

Isaac Brock, military hero

Niagara Region 

Battle of Queenston Heights

Americans crossed the Niagara River and attacked the high ground of Queenston Heights. His sword drawn, Major-General Brock led troops into battle and was fatally wounded. The battle essentially lost, Grand River Mohawk warriors led by John Norton (Teyoninhokarawen) prevented American forces from retreating for several hours until reinforcements led by Major-General Roger Sheaffe arrived and forced over 1,000 American soldiers to surrender.

November 20, 1812

St. Lawrence Region 

First Battle of Lacolle Mills

A small garrison of Canadian Voltigeurs and Mohawk warriors defended the Lacolle Mills Blockhouse near the village of Lacolle, Québec, from American troops under Major-General Dearborn.

December 17, 1812

First Nations 

Battle of Mississinewa River

Some 600 mounted Americans destroyed Miami villages along the Mississinewa River. The following day a force of Miami attacked the American camp, killing 10 and losing about 40 warriors.

January 18, 1813

The Battle of Frenchtown, ЊсRemember the River Raisin!Њо

Western Region 

Battle of Frenchtown

US forces under General Winchester captured the town of Frenchtown on the River Raisin (Michigan) from Canadian militia and Shawnee, Chippewa, Mississauga and Ottawa warriors.

January 22, 1813

Western Region 

Second Battle of Frenchtown

After capturing Frenchtown (now Monroe, Michigan) a week earlier, American forces came under attack from Western Confederacy and British forces. The American defenders were quickly overwhelmed by cannon and musket fire. After the fighting ended, the battle turned into a massacre when more than 30 American prisoners were killed.

February 16, 1813

St. Lawrence Region 

Winter march of the 104th Regiment of Foot

Governor-in-Chief Sir George Prevost ordered the transfer of soldiers from the Atlantic region to the Canadas to help protect them from impending US attacks. Soldiers from New Brunswick began their snow-shoed march from Fredericton to Québec City, eventually reaching Kingston, Ontario. Some died of frostbite on the nearly six week journey.

February 22, 1813

St. Lawrence Region 

Battle of Ogdensburg

Lieutenant-Colonel George Macdonnell led an assault from the ice on Ogdensburg, NY, taking control of the town. The town was not re-garrisoned for the rest of the war.

April 27, 1813

Fort York

Niagara Region 

Invasion and burning of York

American forces led by Brigadier-General Zebulon Pike launched a seaborne invasion of York (Toronto), the capital of Upper Canada. The Americans captured, sacked and burned the city. The local militia committed acts of sabotage. They set alight the grand magazine (gunpowder storage) at Fort York, killing or wounding over 240 American occupiers. The partially-built sloop HMS Sir Isaac Brock was burned to prevent it from being used by the Americans.

May 01, 1813

Western Region 

Siege of Fort Meigs

General Henry Procter led a British, Shawnee, Chippewa, Mississauga and Ottawa force against Fort Meigs in northern Ohio. The siege ended after four days when a troop of Kentucky militia arrived.

May 08, 1813

Western Region 

Battle Near Fort Meigs

Troops under Brigadier-General Procter and Tecumseh defeated an American force attempting to relieve Fort Meigs.

May 24, 1813

Fort George

Niagara Region 

US Bombards Fort George

The fortifications were largely destroyed by American batteries across the Niagara River at Fort Niagara. American "hot shot" – cannonballs heated until red hot – set Fort George alight.

May 27, 1813

Niagara Region 

British Abandon Fort George

In the face of a larger American invasion force Brigadier-General John Vincent ordered that the smouldering Fort George be abandoned. The move exposed the entire British line on the Niagara Frontier, which Vincent ordered abandoned from Queenston Heights south to Fort Erie.

May 29, 1813

War on the Great Lakes 

Raid on Sackets Harbor

A combined British naval and army force attacked Sackets Harbor to destroy the American shipyard and a frigate on the stocks (later named General Pike). The attack had mixed results and failed to destroy the shipyard and frigate.

June 01, 1813

HMS Shannon

Atlantic and Gulf Coasts 

Capture of USS Chesapeake

HMS Shannon defeated USS Chesapeake and towed the American vessel into Halifax, Nova Scotia. This victory reclaimed the honour of the Royal Navy, which had suffered from earlier defeats in ship-to-ship actions.

June 06, 1813

The Battle of Stoney Creek

Niagara Region 

Battle of Stoney Creek

British forces launched a surprise night attack on the American camp at Stoney Creek. The British had learned the sentries’ password, and after a night of close and confused fighting British forces declared victory. The battle led the American invasion force to retreat to Fort George.

June 09, 1813

Niagara Region 

US Forces Abandon Fort Erie

After the loss at Stoney Creek the American presence in Upper Canada was less secure and Fort Erie, which had been held for a period by US forces, was abandoned and later re-occupied by the British.

June 19, 1813

War on the Great Lakes 

Raid on Sodus Point

In an amphibious assault, British Commodore Yeo seized American supplies and set fire to the Sodus Point, New York, storehouses.

June 22, 1813

Niagara Region  People 

Laura Secord's Walk

Upper Canadian Loyalist Laura Secord overheard American troops stationed at Fort George talk of an impending American advance and trekked 30 km to warn British commander Lieutenant James FitzGibbon of an impending attack by Americans based at Fort George.

June 24, 1813

The Battle of Beaver Dams, Monument

First Nations  Niagara Region 

Battle of Beaver Dams

A force of 400 Caughnawaga and Mohawk warriors from both Upper and Lower Canada, with British regulars in support, forced the surrender of nearly 500 advancing American soldiers at what is now Thorold, Ontario. The battle was the largest Aboriginal victory without significant non-Aboriginal involvement.

July 05, 1813

Niagara Region 

Raid on Fort Schlosser

Canadian militia commanded by Colonel Thomas Clark captured military stores at the southern terminus of the US portage route around Niagara Falls.

July 08, 1813

Niagara Region 

Battle of Butler's Farm

A group of some 40 American infantry tried to outflank First Nations forces made up of Iroquois, Mississauga and Ottawa warriors in the vicinity of Butler's Farm. The warriors cut them off, and after a sharp action 20 Americans lay dead, while the balance surrendered.

July 08, 1813

Niagara Region 

Skirmish at Corus's Farm

A small British force, protected by Six Nations, Ottawa and Mississauga warriors, went to Casper Corus’s farm to retrieve a cache of medicines buried by Corus following the capture of Fort George in May. They were chased away by a large force of American dragoons and infantry.

July 10, 1813

Niagara Region 

First Muster of Canadian Volunteers

A military unit of Canadian renegades joined the American cause at Fort George. Commander Joseph Willcocks, a sitting member of the Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada, began a reign of terror in the Niagara Region lasting until December. Many inhabitants loyal to Britain, including those who had “given their paroles” not to fight, were taken as hostages and imprisoned in the United States.

July 29, 1813

St. Lawrence Region 

British Raids around Lake Champlain

Based in Fort Saint-Jean, Colonel John Murray began conducting raids on American villages around Lake Champlain.

August 02, 1813

Western Region 

Assault on Fort Stephenson

British, Canadian and First Nations forces staged an attack on Fort Stephenson, Ohio, but were unable to take the fort from the American defenders.

August 08, 1813

War on the Great Lakes 

USS Hamilton and USS Scourge Capsize

Two American schooners sank in a squall on Lake Ontario, with the loss of more than 80 lives.

August 10, 1813

War on the Great Lakes 

Capture of USS Julia and USS Growler

In an engagement near Twelve Mile Creek on Lake Ontario, the British fleet captured American schooners USS Julia and USS Growler.

August 14, 1813

Niagara Region 

Skirmish at Ball's Farm

American forces under Brigadier-General Peter Porter successfully engaged British allied warriors near Niagara-on-the-Lake, Upper Canada.

September 05, 1813

Atlantic and Gulf Coasts 

HMS Boxer vs. USS Enterprise

A naval battle between HMS Boxer and USS Enterprise off the Maine coast ended with Boxer's surrender. The ship was towed into Portland, Maine. There the commanders of both ships, both of whom had been killed in the battle, were buried with full honours.

September 10, 1813

War on the Great Lakes 

Battle of Lake Erie

The British fleet was forced to surrender to Admiral Perry at Put-in-Bay, giving the Americans control of Lake Erie for the rest of the war.

September 22, 1813

Western Region 

Amherstburg Abandoned

Amherstburg was abandoned and burned by the British because of approaching American forces. British Major-General Henry Procter and his force began a withdrawal along the Thames River toward Moraviantown, accompanied by Tecumseh and his warriors.

October 01, 1813

St. Lawrence Region 

Engagement at Four Corners

Lieutenant-Colonel Charles-Michel de Salaberry surprised an American camp of 5,000 with only 50 men and a First Nations force.

October 02, 1813

People 

African Americans Arrive in Halifax

Freed by the Royal Navy, a group of 133 African Americans from Chesapeake Bay arrived in Halifax.

October 04, 1813

Western Region 

Battle of McGregor's Creek

US forces under William Henry Harrison clashed with British Major-General Procter's British and Tecumseh's Aboriginal rearguard.

October 05, 1813

“Battle of the Thames” (Moraviantown), Emmons

First Nations  Western Region 

Battle of the Thames (Moraviantown)

Major-General Procter decided to turn and face the pursuing American forces under William Henry Harrison at Moraviantown. The British forces surrendered after a brief fight, while Tecumseh’s warriors offered stiff resistance. Tecumseh was killed in the battle, and the remaining British and Aboriginal forces retreated.

October 05, 1813

People 

John Richardson is Captured

John Richardson, a Canadian serving in the British Army, was captured at the Battle of the Thames (also known as the Battle of Moraviantown). Richardson would later gain modest fame as the first Canadian novelist.

October 05, 1813

Tecumseh, Shawnee chief

First Nations  People 

Death of Tecumseh

The Shawnee leader Tecumseh was killed in the Battle of the Thames. He and his brother Tenskwatawa had formed a confederacy in 1805 to oppose American expansion in present-day Michigan and Indiana. Tecumseh’s death effectively destroyed the Western Confederacy and any hope of an independent Aboriginal nation in the Old Northwest.

October 06, 1813

Western Region 

Burning of Fairfield on the Thames

After the Battle of the Thames the American army looted and burned Fairfield, a small settlement on the Thames River, Upper Canada.

October 26, 1813

War of 1812

St. Lawrence Region 

Battle of Châteauguay

The United States launched its largest offensive of the war, attempting to capture Montréal. Some of the invading US troops were sent down the St. Lawrence River, while others crossed from New York State into Lower Canada. At the Battle of Châteauguay (near Ormstown, Québec), an American land force of approximately 3,000 was defeated by nearly 2,000 French-Canadian Voltigeurs, fencibles and Mohawk warriors from Kahnawake, all led by Lieutenant-Colonel Charles-Michel de Salaberry.

November 11, 1813

War of 1812

St. Lawrence Region 

Battle of Crysler's Farm

American forces on the St. Lawrence River were halted when British and militia units defeated them at the Battle of Crysler's Farm near Cornwall, Ontario. After defeats at Châteauguay and Crysler's Farm, the Americans abandoned the St. Lawrence campaign, guaranteeing British control of the important river.

December 10, 1813

Niagara Region 

Americans Abandon Fort George

Major George McClure abandoned Fort George and ordered the burning of the town of Newark during a winter blizzard. Canadian renegade Volunteers burned the town, turning out some 400 civilians.

December 15, 1813

Western Region 

Skirmish at McCrae's House

A detachment of three officers and 36 men of the American 26th Regiment surrendered to 32 members of the Canadian militia at the house of Thomas McCrae, located west of Chatham, Upper Canada.

December 16, 1813

Drummond, General Sir Gordon

People 

Drummond Takes Command

Lieutenant-General Gordon Drummond took command in Upper Canada. He was the first Canadian-born general officer in British service.

December 19, 1813

Fort Niagara (NY)

Niagara Region 

British Capture Fort Niagara

In a night assault, boats were brought 68 miles overland from Burlington Heights with a force of 500 British regulars and warriors from the Six Nations, Mohawks of St. Regis, and Caughnawaga. The troops were instructed to be as silent as possible and to only use their bayonets. The fort was captured without a shot being fired.

December 19, 1813

Niagara Region 

Engagement at Lewiston

British and Aboriginal allies under Major-General Phineas Riall fought US troops at Lewiston. The force destroyed the village of Lewiston in retaliation for the burning of Newark.

December 29, 1813

Niagara Region 

Burning of Black Rock and Buffalo

Approximately 1,500 troops under Major-General Phineas Riall crossed the Niagara River and burned the villages of Black Rock and Buffalo.

March 04, 1814

Western Region 

Battle of Longwoods

An American raiding party defeated an attempt by British regulars and the Chippewa, Mississauga, Ottawa, Wyandots and Delaware to intercept them near Wardsville in present-day southwest Ontario.

March 30, 1814

St. Lawrence Region 

Second Battle of Lacolle Mills

The small garrison of a British outpost guarding the crossing of the Lacolle River, aided by reinforcements, fought off a strong but badly executed American attack by General Wilkinson and some 4,000 men.

March 31, 1814

Historical Context 

Allies Enter Paris

The Allied armies of Prussia, Austria and Russia entered Paris, France, defeating Napoleon and restoring Bourbon monarch Louis XVIII.

April 11, 1814

Historical Context 

Napoleon Abdicates

Napoleon’s abdication marked the end of the Napoleonic Wars and enabled the British to send more men and ships to North America.

April 20, 1814

Atlantic and Gulf Coasts 

USS Frolic Surrenders

The American sloop USS Frolic, out of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, fell in with the British frigate HMS Orpheus and schooner HMS Shelburne in the Florida Straits, surrendering after being fired upon by Orpheus.

April 29, 1814

Atlantic and Gulf Coasts 

USS Peacock Takes HMS Epervier

The USS Peacock captured the HMS Epervier off the coast of Florida and took it into service as the USS Epervier.

May 14, 1814

Western Region 

Americans Raid Port Dover

American forces under Colonel John Campbell raided and burned Port Dover and the nearby communities of Charlottesville, Patterson's Creek and Long Point, Upper Canada.

May 23, 1814

Niagara Region 

The Ancaster Bloody Assize

A series of trials were conducted in which 19 men were accused of supporting the American cause. They were charged with high treason. Fifteen men were found guilty, and eight executed by hanging at Burlington Heights on 20 July 1814.

July 03, 1814

Niagara Region 

Americans Capture Fort Erie

Faced with a superior American force, Major Thomas Buck fired only a few shots from the fort's cannon before surrendering.

July 05, 1814

First Nations  Niagara Region 

Battle of Chippawa

For the first time in the war, American forces defeated a similarly sized British contingent. In addition, Mohawk warriors allied with the British were forced to face fellow Six Nations warriors in battle, as Seneca warriors from New York were allied with American forces. The battle set the stage for the Battle of Lundy's Lane.

July 11, 1814

Atlantic and Gulf Coasts 

Surrender of Garrison at Fort Sullivan, Maine

Major Perley Putnam surrendered Fort Sullivan, which protected the town of Eastport on Moose Island, District of Maine, without a fight. The British also took possession of nearby Allen's Island and Frederick's Island.

July 17, 1814

Western Region 

Capture of Prairie du Chien

British, Canadian and Winnebago, Sac and Sioux forces recaptured a Canadian fur trading post at Prairie du Chien in Wisconsin Territory after a three-day battle. It had been captured on 2 June 1814 by American militia and regulars under Governor William Clark.

July 18, 1814

Niagara Region 

Americans Burn St. Davids Village

An American militia detachment marched from Queenston to St. Davids, forcing the 1st Lincoln Militia to fall back. The Americans took the village, looting it and burning most of the buildings.

July 20, 1814

Western Region 

Burning of Fort St. Joseph

An American expedition to the Upper Great Lakes arrived off St. Joseph Island. A shore party burned the abandoned British fort and the fur traders' storehouses.

July 21, 1814

Western Region 

Destruction of the First Sault Ste. Marie Canal

The first Sault Ste. Marie canal was built in 1798 by the North West Company to bypass the river's fierce rapids. In 1814, it was destroyed by invading American forces.

July 22, 1814

First Nations 

Second Treaty of Greenville

A peace treaty was signed between the US and the Wyandot, Delaware, Seneca, Shawanee, Miami and Potawatomi residing within Ohio, Indiana and Michigan.

July 25, 1814

The Battle of Lundy's Lane

Niagara Region 

Battle of Lundy's Lane

In one of the bloodiest battles fought on Canadian soil during the war, British troops, fencibles, militia and Grand River warriors (led by John Norton) clashed with Americans near Niagara Falls. There were nearly 900 casualties on each side. The battle ended American advances into Upper Canada as they retreated to Fort Erie.

August 02, 1814

Niagara Region 

Siege of Fort Erie Begins

The siege of Fort Erie was a British blockade of their own fort, located at the entrance to the Niagara River opposite Buffalo, New York, which the Americans had captured on 3 July 1814.

August 04, 1814

Western Region 

Battle of Mackinac Island

Five American ships carrying 700 soldiers attacked Fort George on Mackinac Island. The Americans retreated after heavy losses, leaving the island in British hands.

August 12, 1814

War on the Great Lakes 

Capture of the USS Ohio and USS Somers

Under the cover of darkness, a British assault party led by Alexander Dobbs captured two American ships, the USS Ohio and USS Somers, anchored in the Niagara River near Fort Erie.

August 13, 1814

War on the Great Lakes 

HMS Nancy Sinks

The HMS Nancy was sunk during an attack by a US squadron at the Nottawasaga River, Upper Canada.

August 13, 1814

People 

McKitrick of PEI Killed

Sergeant Joseph McKitrick of Prince Edward Island was killed in action with the Glengarry Light Infantry at Fort Erie, Upper Canada. He is believed to be the only Islander killed in the war.

August 15, 1814

Fort Erie

Niagara Region 

Assault on Fort Erie

After two days of bombardment British troops and First Nations allies, including Six Nations warriors, under Lieutenant-General Gordon Drummond attacked the fort in three prongs. British forces were able to fight their way into the fort but a gunpowder magazine exploded, killing many of the attackers and forcing the others to retreat.

August 19, 1814

"Thompson"""

Atlantic and Gulf Coasts 

Sacking of Washington

Some 4,500 British soldiers landed at Benedict, Maryland and advanced on the American capital. British soldiers quickly overwhelmed the American defenders guarding Washington. The British proceeded to sack government buildings, setting fire to the US Capitol and White House. Americans destroyed the Washington Navy Yard to prevent ships and stores from falling into British hands.

August 30, 1814

Prevost, Sir George

St. Lawrence Region 

British Army Invades New York State

A British invasion force numbering over 10,000 men under the command of Sir George Prevost crossed the border into the United States and moved towards Plattsburgh.

September 01, 1814

Atlantic and Gulf Coasts 

British Occupy Castine, Maine

The British occupied the town of Castine and held it until nearly the end of April 1815, more than four months after the peace treaty.

September 03, 1814

War on the Great Lakes 

Capture of the USS Tigress and USS Scorpion

A British and Canadian force of seamen, soldiers and Aboriginal allies under Lieutenants Miller Worsley, R.N., and Andrew Bulger captured the USS Tigress and two days later captured the USS Scorpion after fierce hand-to-hand fighting.

September 12, 1814

People 

Robert Ross is killed

British commander Robert Ross, who defeated the American army defending Washington and burned the city, was killed in the attack on Baltimore on 12 September 1814. His body was taken to Halifax and buried at the Old Burying Ground cemetery.

September 13, 1814

Atlantic and Gulf Coasts 

British Bombard Fort McHenry

The British unsuccessfully bombarded Fort McHenry, Baltimore, Maryland, a major US privateer base. Following the bombardment Francis Scott Key wrote the words to "The Star-Spangled Banner."

September 14, 1814

St. Lawrence Region 

Battle of Plattsburgh

After receiving reinforcements from Britain, Governor-in-Chief Prevost launched a combined land and naval operation against American forces stationed at Sackets Harbor, New York. British ships met American forces near Plattsburgh, New York. After the British ships are defeated, their land forces were ordered to withdraw. It was the last major British operation of the war.

October 19, 1814

Niagara Region 

Battle of Cook's Mills

After the unsuccessful siege of Fort Erie the British retreated to Chippawa. US regular forces pushed north along Chippawa Creek and destroyed grain at nearby Cook’s Mills. A British column confronted the American force, and both sides withdrew after several hours of indecisive skirmishing. The action was likely the last battle on the Niagara Peninsula during the war.

October 22, 1814

Western Region 

Duncan McArthur’s Raid into Southwest Upper Canada

In the fall of 1814, American Brigadier-General Duncan McArthur led a brutal military operation to punish the people of Upper Canada. He raided Upper Canada with a large mounted army, burning homes, pillaging farms, and stealing large numbers of horses and livestock. The Canadian militia and Six Nations warriors fought McArthur and his raiders at Malcolm's Mills and other locations.

November 05, 1814

Niagara Region 

US Forces Blow Up Fort Erie

When the Americans evacuated the Niagara area they blew up Fort Erie. It remained in ruins until its restoration by the Niagara Parks Commission in the 1930s.

December 24, 1814

Historical Context 

Treaty of Ghent

Peace talks between Great Britain and the United States took place in Belgium in August and ended with the signing of the Treaty of Ghent on Christmas Eve. The British insisted the treaty be ratified by both governments before it took effect because the Americans refused to ratify three previous treaties.

January 08, 1815

The Battle of New Orleans, by Moran

Atlantic and Gulf Coasts 

Battle of New Orleans

Unaware that the Treaty of Ghent had ended the War of 1812 two weeks earlier, British and American troops fought the Battle of New Orleans. In the last major land battle of the war, American forces under Major-General Andrew Jackson repulsed the British, led by Major-General Sir Edward Pakenham, near New Orleans.

February 16, 1815

Historical Context 

Congress Ratifies Treaty of Ghent

The War of 1812 formally ended with the exchange of ratifications in Washington.

July 01, 1815

Western Region 

US Hands over Amherstburg

The US garrison under Colonel Butler returns Fort Amherstburg, captured in September 1813, to British Lieutenant-Colonel R. James of the 37th Regiment.

July 18, 1815

Historical Context 

British Evacuate Fort Mackinac

Following the Treaty of Ghent, American forces reoccupied Fort Mackinac. They renamed Fort George as Fort Holmes in honour of Major Holmes, who was killed in the 1814 attack.

April 28, 1817

Historical Context 

Rush-Bagot Agreement

This agreement demilitarized the Great Lakes and, along with the Convention of 1818, solidified the border between the United States and British North America.

November 25, 1817

Historical Context 

Land Decisions

Land commissioners determined that Moose, Dudley and Frederick Islands belonged to the US, but that all other islands in Passamaquoddy Bay, and Grand Manan Island in the Bay of Fundy, were part of New Brunswick.

June 30, 1818

Historical Context 

British Forces Withdraw from Moose Island

British forces left Moose Island, bringing a belated and unofficial end to the war on the Atlantic coast.