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Canadian History (Hard)
These questions are based on the real citizenship test taken by newcomers on the path to citizenship.
Stompin' Tom Connors
Charles Thomas "Stompin’ Tom" Connors, OC, singer, songwriter, guitarist, fiddler (born 9 February 1936 in Saint John, NB; died 6 March 2013 in Ballinafad, ON). One of the most iconic figures in Canadian music, Stompin’ Tom Connors was a working-class, salt-of-the-earth troubadour and perhaps the most overtly nationalist songwriter Canada has ever produced. His traditional country songs about Canadian people and places — such as “Bud the Spud,” “Sudbury Saturday Night” and “Big Joe Mufferaw” — were humorous, patriotic and widely popular, and reflected his extensive travels throughout the country. He was a passionate activist for Canadian music and culture, going so far as to return six Juno Awards in protest of what he saw as the organization’s favouring of expatriate Canadians over those with only domestic success. He received Lifetime Achievement Awards from the East Coast Music Awards, the Toronto Musician’s Union and SOCAN. He was made an Officer of the Order of Canada and inducted into Canada's Walk of Fame.
Cambodian or Khmer Canadians
Immigration of Cambodians to Canada is relatively recent. From 1980 to 1992, Canada welcomed more than 18,000 Cambodia refugees who were fleeing the Khmer Rouge regime. They settled in Canada’s major urban areas. In the 2016 Census, 38,490 people reported being of Cambodian ethnic origin. Over the years since Cambodians began immigrating to Canada, many Cambodian Canadians have become distinguished in their fields; examples include actress Ellen Wong, journalist Chan Tep and graffiti artist FONKi.
Stephen Harper's New Intuitive Side
There are two ways to think about election timing. One has to do mostly with polling numbers, the other mainly with political instincts. For years Stephen HARPER looked like a man of icy calculation, very much the sort who would go with the numbers.
Canadians Upbeat About the Future
For the past three weeks or so, the highest reaches of the Billboard 200, which ranks top-selling albums in the U.S. across all genres against Nielsen SoundScan sales data, has been dominated by one single, identifiable group: Canadians.
Politics and Government
This timeline highlights events and people related to politics and governance in Canada.
Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF)
Since its inception in 1924, the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) has served Canadians in peace and war. It played a vital role in the Second World War, becoming the fourth-largest Allied air force, and reached its "golden age" in the late 1950s, with dozens of combat squadrons on the front lines of the Cold War. The term Royal, dropped from the name in 1968, was returned to the air force in 2011.
Francophonie and Canada
The term francophonie has been in common use since the 1960s. It has several meanings. In its most general sense, it refers to all peoples and communities anywhere in the world that have French as their mother tongue or customary language. The term can also refer to the wider, more complex network of government agencies and non-government organizations that work to establish, maintain and strengthen the special ties among French-speaking people throughout the world. Lastly, the expression “La Francophonie” is increasingly used as shorthand for the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie (International Organisation of La Francophonie).
Significant Events in Canadian History
The significance of an event cannot be measured scientifically. Every historian, journalist or student could make their own lists. This selection is meant to draw attention to a number of events in Canadian history that left an indelible mark on the lives of the people of the time and an indisputable memory in the minds of later generations.
New Democratic Party (NDP)
Founded in 1961, the New Democratic Party (NDP) is a social democratic political party that has formed the government in several provinces but never nationally. Its current leader is Jagmeet Singh. In 2011, it enjoyed an historic electoral breakthrough, becoming the Official Opposition in Parliament for the first time. Four years later, despite hopes of winning a federal election, the NDP was returned to a third-place position in the House of Commons. It slipped to fourth place in the 2019 federal election, after a resurgence from the Bloc Québécois.
Guide to Y2K
This article was originally published in Maclean’s magazine on April 19, 1999. Partner content is not updated.For Susan Wild and Rob Kuhn, the year 2000 has come early. In the real world, there are still some months left before Canadians will know whether they face the reality of computer-driven disaster.
Somalia Inquiry's Damning Report
This article was originally published in Maclean’s magazine on July 14, 1997. Partner content is not updated.Hindsight is a wonderful thing. If only Prime Minister Brian Mulroney had not jumped at U.S. President George Bushs request to send Canadian troops to Somalia in 1992.
Michael Ignatieff (Profile)
We're inside Jello, a Montreal club viscous with young Liberals. They've gathered this Saturday night in mid-September for the launch of "iggynation," a series of grunge-bar events designed to bolster youth delegate support for Michael Ignatieff.
History Since Confederation
The story of Canada since 1867 is, in many ways, a successful one: For a century and a half, people of different languages, cultures and backgrounds, thrown together in the vast, northern reaches of a continent, built a free society where regional communities could grow and prosper, linked by the common thread of an emerging national identity. There were false steps along the way, including the struggles of Indigenous people for survival, and the ever-present tensions over federal unity. But for the most part, Canada became an example to the world of a modern, workable nation state.