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Saint Joseph's Oratory

Saint Joseph’s Oratory of Mount Royal is a minor basilica of the Roman Catholic Church. The Oratory is located on the northwestern slope of Mount Royal in the city of Montreal. (See also Côte-des-Neiges.) It is the tallest church in Canada and one of the largest domed structures in the world. The Oratory is an important landmark and symbol of Montreal, as well as a tourist attraction. Pilgrims come to visit it from all corners of the world. It attracts about 2 million visitors every year.


Repatriation of Artifacts

Most Indigenous ethnology collections found in Canadian museums today were gathered (and sometimes confiscated) by missionaries, government agents, amateur and professional collectors and anthropologists such as Edward Sapir and Marius Barbeau during the late 1800s and early 1900s. Today, many Indigenous nations are requesting that these items be returned to their true home.



A longhouse was the basic house type of pre-contact northern Iroquoian-speaking peoples, such as the Huron-Wendat, Haudenosaunee, Petun and Neutral. The longhouse sheltered a number of families related through the female line. In the 1700s, European-style single-family houses gradually replaced longhouses as primary residences. However, longhouses still function as important facilities in which some Indigenous peoples conduct ceremonies, political meetings and various community gatherings. (See also Architectural History of Indigenous Peoples in Canada.)


Giuseppe Macina

Giuseppe (Francesco) Macina. Tenor, opera director, teacher, conductor, b Modugno, Italy, 20 Jun 1938; Artist Diploma voice (Toronto) 1967.


Round 3: How do you get from...

How do you get from the Suez Crisis to Wayne Gretzky?

In this round of six degrees of Canadian history, we start with the world’s first great peacekeeping force and arrive at “The Great One.” The Suez Crisis was a military and political confrontation in Egypt that might have divided the United States and Great Britain were it not for some pretty impressive Canadian stickhandling — perhaps even more impressive than Gretzky’s.

The following article is from our Six Degrees of Canadian History series. Past series are not updated.


Round 9: How do you get from....

How do you get from Poutine to the Canadian Arctic Expedition?

In this round of six degrees of Canadian history, we dig into a maudite poutine and end with the Canadian Arctic Expedition. A regional favourite with broad appeal, poutine is the closest thing Canada has to a national dish. A broad survey of a favourite region, the Canadian Arctic Expedition was the largest, most expensive and scientifically sophisticated Arctic venture of the early 1900s. But what does it have to do with poutine?

Well, it didn’t come with fries, but it did turn into a bit of a hot mess.

The following article is from our Six Degrees of Canadian History series. Past series are not updated.


The Halluci Nation (A Tribe Called Red)

Electronic group The Halluci Nation (previously known as A Tribe Called Red) has garnered international acclaim for its politically charged, powwow drum-driven dance music. Featuring the DJs Bear Witness (Thomas Ehren Ramon) and 2oolman (Tim Hill), the group emerged from an Ottawa club party called Electric Pow Wow, which began in 2007. Former members include DJ Shub (Dan General), and founding members DJ NDN (Ian Campeau) and Dee Jay Frame (Jon Limoges). The group has described its “powwow step” music as “the soundtrack to a contemporary evolution of the powwow.” ATCR is part of what broadcaster and educator Wab Kinew has called the “Indigenous Music Renaissance,” an innovative new generation of Indigenous artists in Canada. The group was nominated for the Polaris Music Prize in 2013 and 2017, and has won three Juno Awards, including Breakthrough Group of the Year in 2014 and Group of the Year in 2018.


London Township Treaty (No. 6)

The London Township Treaty of 1796 (also known as Treaty 6 in the Upper Canada treaties numbering system) was an early land agreement between First Nations and British authorities in Upper Canada (later Ontario). It was one of a series of Upper Canada Land Surrenders. The London Township Treaty encompassed a tract of land 12 miles square (about 31 kilometres square) in the southwestern part of the colony. The British originally purchased it as the location to establish the capital of the colony, but York (modern Toronto) became the capital instead. (See also Treaties with Indigenous Peoples in Canada.)


Eberhard Zeidler

Eberhard Heinrich Zeidler, OC, OOnt, architect (born 11 January 1926 in Braunsdorf, Germany; died 7 January 2022). Eberhard Zeidler was one of the most successful Canadian exponents of building technology as a central theme for architectural design, along with Ron Keenbergof IKOY Architects. Zeidler was known for both the technical innovations of his projects and the humanity of his designs. A friend of Jane Jacobs, Zeidler incorporated the role of the building in the city in which it is set and its role in the lives of the people who use it.


Bertha Skye

Bertha Skye, cook, entrepreneur, Indigenous Elder (born 1932 on Ahtahkakoop Cree Nation, SK). From a young age, Skye learned to cook and used her talent to feed those in her community. She was chosen to participate in the 1992 Culinary Olympics, where she and her teammates won several medals, including a gold for Skye’s corn, bean, and squash soup (also know as Three Sisters soup). Among other advisory positions, Skye has served as an Elder in Residence at various post-secondary institutions in Ontario.


Nipissing (Nbisiing) First Nation

Nipissing (also Nbisiing) First Nation people are of Algonquin and Ojibwe descent. (See also Anishinaabe and Algonquian.) The First Nation is made up of several communities along the north shore of Lake Nipissing. Their motto is an affirmation for protection of A-Kii (land), Bemaadzijik (people) and E-Niigaanwang (future). Nipissing First Nation was the first Anishinaabe nation in Ontario to ratify their own constitution in 2014. The population of Nipissing First Nation, as of November 2020, is 2,909. Two-thirds of the population reside off-reserve, while 916 live on-reserve.


War of 1812

The War of 1812 (which lasted from 1812 to 1814) was a military conflict between the United States and Great Britain. As a colony of Great Britain, Canada was swept up in the War of 1812 and was invaded several times by the Americans. The war was fought in Upper Canada, Lower Canada, on the Great Lakes and the Atlantic, and in the United States. The peace treaty of Ghent (1814), which ended the war, largely returned the status quo. However, in Canada, the war contributed to a growing sense of national identity, including the idea that civilian soldiers were largely responsible for repelling the American invaders. In contrast, the First Nations allies of the British and Canadian cause suffered much because of the war; not only had they lost many warriors (including the great Tecumseh), they also lost any hope of halting American expansion in the west, and their contributions were quickly forgotten by their British and Canadian allies. (See also First Nations and Métis Peoples in the War of 1812.)

This article focuses primarily on land campaigns; for more detailed discussion of naval campaigns, see Atlantic Campaign of the War of 1812 and War on the Lakes in the War of 1812. Additionally, this is a full-length entry on the War of 1812. For a plain-language summary please see War of 1812 (Plain-Language Summary).


Louis-Joseph Gaultier de La Vérendrye

Louis-Joseph Gaultier de La Vérendrye, explorer, cartographer, fur trader, military officer (born 9 November 1717 at Île aux Vaches, Quebec (New France); died at sea off the coast of Cape Breton 15 November 1761). Known by his title Chevalier, the youngest son of Pierre Gaultier de Varennes et de la Vérendrye led the first European exploration across the Missouri River into the Great Plains. He served New France in the War of the Austrian Succession and the Seven Years' War.


Cody Groat

Cody Groat is a SSHRC-funded PhD candidate in history at Wilfrid Laurier University. His research focuses on the federal commemoration of Indigenous history from 1919 to present. He holds a Master of Arts in World Heritage Studies from the University of Birmingham, UK. Groat is Mohawk from the Six Nations of the Grand River reserve in southwestern Ontario.


Indigenous Names of Streets in Canada

The names of many streets across Canada are influenced by Indigenous words. These streets are named for Indigenous people, places and aspects of Indigenous culture. A growing number of civic leaders have begun replacing long-established street names with Indigenous names. Some older street names have colonial ties that are not appropriate. Renaming streets using Indigenous names acknowledges Indigenous history and works toward reconciliation. This article highlights some of the many street names in Canada that have Indigenous origins and significance.


St. Jacobs

St. Jacobs, ON, established as a Police Village in 1904 and dissolved as such in 1972 under the Regional Municipality of Waterloo Act (1972), population 1,891 (2011c), 1,597 (2006c).


Gilbert Monture

Gilbert Clarence Monture (Big Feather), OC, OBE (Order of the British Empire), Mohawk mining engineer, civil servant, army officer (born 27 August 1895 on the Six Nations of the Grand River First Nation, ON; died 19 June 1973 in Ottawa, ON). Monture was a university student during the First World War and interrupted his studies to enlist in the Canadian military. After the war, he completed university and became a world-renowned mining engineer.