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Dartmouth

Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, metropolitan area, population (including Cole Harbour) 96,165 (2021 census), 92,301 (2016 census). Dartmouth is located on the eastern side of Halifax Harbour in the Halifax Regional Municipality (incorporated in 1996).

Article

Cold Lake

Cold Lake, Alberta, incorporated as a city in 2000, population 15, 661 (2021 census), 14,976 (2016 census). The city of Cold Lake is located on a lake of the same name, 290 km northeast of Edmonton. The Cree called the lake “Kinosoo” or “big fish” after a Cree legend. European settlers named the lake for its deep, cold water.

Article

Beaumont

Beaumont, Alberta, incorporated as a village in 1973, as a town in 1980 and as a city in 2019, population 20,888 (2021 census), 17,457 (2016 census). The city of Beaumont is located immediately south of Edmonton’s city boundary.

Article

Reserves in Canada

A reserve is land set aside by the Canadian government for use by First Nations. Reserves are managed under the Indian Act. Reserve lands represent a small fraction of the traditional territories First Nations had before European colonization. While reserves are places where members of a First Nation live, some reserves are used for hunting and other activities. Many First Nations hold more than one parcel of reserve land, and some reserves are shared by more than one First Nation. There are reserves in every province in Canada, but few have been established in the territories. Most reserves are rural, though some First Nations have created urban reserves, which are reserves within or neighboring a city.

This is the full-length entry about Reserves in Canada. If you are interested in reading a plain-language summary, please see Reserves in Canada (Plain Language Summary).

Article

Ksan

Ksan (or ‘Ksan) is a historical village, museum and campground, owned and operated by the Gitanmaax Band. It is located at the junction of the Skeena and Bulkley rivers in Hazelton, British Columbia. Ksan was established in 1970 as way to promote and preserve Gitxsan culture and history.

Article

Victoria (BC)

Victoria, BC, incorporated as a city in 1862, population 91,867 (2021 census), 85,792 (2016 census). The capital of British Columbia, the City of Victoria is situated on the southern tip of Vancouver Island, about 100 km south of Vancouver. Occupying a peninsular site, Victoria is bordered by the Juan de Fuca and Haro straits. In addition, the Olympic Mountains lie to the south, the San Juan Islands to the east, and the fjord-like Saanich Inlet and richly forested Malahat Ridge and Sooke Hills to the west. Greater Victoria lies within the Capital Regional District (CRD), a federation comprising the following incorporated areas: the cities of Victoria, Colwood and Langford; the towns of Sidney and View Royal; and the municipalities of Saanich, Oak Bay, Esquimalt, Central Saanich, North Saanich, Sooke, Metchosin and Highlands. The CRD also includes the electoral areas of Juan de Fuca, the Southern Gulf Islands and Saltspring Island.

Article

Reserves in Canada (Plain-Language Summary)

A reserve is land set aside by the Canadian government for use by First Nations. Reserves are managed under the Indian Act. Reserves are places where First Nations often live. However, some reserves are only for practices like hunting. Not all First Nations have reserve lands. There are reserves in every province in Canada, but most are in rural or remote areas. Few reserves have been established in the territories.

(This is a plain-language summary of Reserves in Canada. If you are interested in reading about this topic in more depth, please see our full-length entry, Reserves in Canada.)

Article

Caledon

Caledon, Ontario, incorporated as a city in 1974, population 76,581 (2021 census), 66,502 (2016 census). Northwest of Toronto, Caledon shares its border with nine other municipalities. Together with Brampton and Mississauga, it creates the Region of Peel. Up until recent decades, the area has been relatively rural. Today, however, it is in the midst of urbanization.

Throughout history, the Caledon area has been home to different Indigenous groups, namely the Wendat (Huron), Tionontati (Petun), Haudenosaunee and Anishinaabeg, including the Mississaugas of the Credit First Nation. The land is part of the Ajetance Purchase (1818).

Article

Brampton

Brampton, Ontario, incorporated as a city in 1974, population 656,480 (2021 census), 593,638 (2016 census). The city of Brampton was created by the amalgamation of the Town of Brampton, the southern half of Chinguacousy Township, and portions of the Town of Mississauga and Toronto Gore Township. Located northwest of Toronto, Brampton is part of the Regional Municipality of Peel. It is located within the Credit and Humber River watersheds. Throughout history, the Brampton area has been home to different Indigenous groups, namely the Wendat (Huron), Haudenosaunee and Anishinaabeg, including the Mississaugas of the Credit. The land is covered by the Ajetance Purchase (1818).

Article

Orangeville

Orangeville, Ontario, incorporated as a town in 1864, population 30,167 (2021 census), 28,900 (2016 census), is a town just north of the western end of the Greater Toronto Area. Located at the southern border of Dufferin County, it is surrounded by the townships of Amaranth and East Garafraxa, and the towns of Caledon and Mono.

Throughout history, the Caledon area has been home to different Indigenous groups, namely the Wendat (Huron), Tionontati (Petun), Haudenosaunee and Anishinaabeg, including the Mississaugas of the Credit First Nation. The land is part of Treaty 18 (Lake Simcoe-Nottawasaga Treaty) and Treaty 19 (Ajetance Purchase).

Editorial

Editorial: How the “Canadianized” Community of Newfoundland Joined Canada

The following article is an editorial written by The Canadian Encyclopedia staff. Editorials are not usually updated.

When the Parliament Buildings in Ottawa were repaired after a fire during the First World War, stone plaques were erected over the entrance to the Peace Tower. There were ten of them — nine bearing the coats of arms of the provinces and one left bare, to await the day when Newfoundlandjoined Canada.