Browse "Law Enforcement"

Displaying 21-40 of 109 results
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Corruption

Political corruption may be defined as behaviour by public officials, elected or appointed, which violates social or legal norms regarding what is or is not legitimate private gain at public expense.

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Corvée

Corvée, required labour. Labour demanded of HABITANTS in NEW FRANCE by seigneurs in addition to rent or for pasture rights was illegal and was suppressed by the INTENDANTS.

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Coutume de Paris

Coutume de Paris, the customary law of the Prévoté et Vicomté de Paris (written 1510; revised 1580), was a code of law first introduced to what is now Canada by the COMPAGNIE DES CENT-ASSOCIÉS in 1627.

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Cultural Duality

Contemporary observers who may not be thoroughly familiar with the history behind Canadian cultural dualism often have trouble in decoding it. Although the idea of cultural duality appears in laws, in policies on education, religion and language, and in the formulation of the fundamental rights of the provinces, its historical foundations remain hard to define.

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Cultural Policy

At another level, culture is associated with communications and "mass culture" through broadcasting, film, book and magazine publishing, television, sound recording and new media, etc.

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Dangerous Offenders

Sentencing in criminal cases serves a variety of purposes, including deterrence, rehabilitation, denunciation and public protection. Purposes predominate depending on, for example, the nature and circumstances of the offence and the offender.

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Decentralization

Decentralization, in federal countries, occurs when there is a substantial sharing of power, authority, financial resources and political support among federal, provincial and local GOVERNMENTS. The less concentrated these resources are in the central government, the more decentralized the system.

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Defamation in Canada

Defamation law protects an individual's reputation and good name. It also restricts freedom of speech. Therefore, courts must carefully balance these two important values in deciding defamation actions.

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Disallowance

The CONSTITUTION ACT of 1867 provides that any ACT of a provincial legislature must be promptly sent to the GOVERNOR GENERAL and that the governor general-in-council (federal CABINET) may disallow any such Act (wipe it off the statute book) within one year.

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Energy Policy

Energy policy comprises government measures concerned with the production, transportation and use of energy commodities. Governments may adopt energy policies to meet goals such as economic growth, the distribution of income, industrial diversification and the protection of the ENVIRONMENT.

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Enfranchisement

Enfranchisement was the most common of the legal processes by which Indigenous peoples lost their Indian Status under the Indian Act.

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Enslavement

Enslavement in what is now Canada was practised by a number of Aboriginal tribes, notably those on the Northwest Coast. As practised by Europeans it may have begun with the Portuguese explorer Gaspar Corte-Real, who enslaved 50 Aboriginal men and women in 1500 in Newfoundland.

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Environmental Governance

Environmental governance is a term used to describe how decisions about the ENVIRONMENT are made and who makes such decisions. It is a broad term that includes the formal and informal institutional arrangements for resource and environment decision-making and management.

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Federal-Provincial Relations

Many of the concerns of modern government cut across the loose jurisdictional boundaries found in the constitution. National purposes can often only be achieved with provincial co-operation; provincial goals often require federal assistance.

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Fiscal Policy

Fiscal policy is the use of government taxing and spending powers to manage the behaviour of the economy. Most fiscal policy is a balancing act between taxes, which tend to reduce economic activity, and spending, which tends to increase it — although there is debate among economists about the effectiveness of fiscal measures.

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Fisheries Policy

The challenge of fisheries policy is to preserve fish stocks while maximizing economic benefit to the people involved in the industry, to the communities that depend on it, and to the nation as a whole.