Ethnomusicology. The scholarly study of music, broadly conceived to include music as object, as social practice, and as concept. Historically, ethnomusicology has generally avoided the subject matter and some of the methodology of Musicology (which may be logically understood as that subdiscipline of Ethnomusicology dealing primarily with Western European notated traditions).
The majority of ethnomusicological studies have focused on communities bounded in various ways - by nation, region, or city, for example, or by factors such as ethnicity, age group, gender, religion, or class. More rarely, ethnomusicological studies are concerned with universal properties of human sounds or logical systems. Some studies have been comparative. Many ethnomusicologists have documented and described the musical style of large repertoires in specific communities, endeavours requiring field observation and collection. It is difficult to determine the limits of ethnomusicological activity: many important collections and descriptions were and are made for non-scholarly purposes, many antedate ethnomusicology as a scholarly discipline, and many have been made under the academic rubric of 'Folklore'. Hence, while historical definitions of 'ethnomusicology' have sometimes associated the field with the investigation of 'non-Western' music and 'folk' music, the practices defy reduction based either on subject or methodology. In Canada, the early phases of study focused on the investigation of Indian and Inuit music as well as the folk music of Canadians of French and British descent. During the 20th century, increasing attention was paid to the music of Canadians from other parts of the globe.
Among (relatively) recent developments in ethnomusicology are studies of inter-cultural urban contexts, studies with a historical dimension, and studies of individuals. Such studies have forced ethnomusicologists to abandon the idea that social groups are isolated by immutable boundaries, but that such boundaries are instead constantly renegotiated and re-established, in part, by means of expressive culture. Another relatively recent development has been the increasingly diverse background of people doing ethnomusicology; this has enlarged the subject scope and raised important theoretical questions concerning insiders and outsiders, and the relation of researcher and informant.
The term 'ethnomusicology' itself appears to have first been used in print by Jaap Kunst in 1950, to replace 'comparative musicology' - a translation of the German 'vergleichende Musikwissenschaft,' itself an analogy to comparative linguistics. This had previously replaced Guido Adler's term of 1885, 'Musikologie,' to denote the sub-species of 'Musikwissenschaft' (musicology) that was concerned with 'ethnographic aims'. Many ethnomusicologists, aware that 'ethnomusicology' implies distinctions which their own research has proven untenable (between 'ethnics' and 'non-ethnics,' between 'ethno-music' and 'music,' between monolithic concepts of the 'west' and the 'non-west,' and even between 'ethnomusicology' and 'musicology'), are unhappy with the term.
The following abbreviations and acronyms are used throughout this entry: AESoc, American Ethnology Society; AMNH, American Museum of Natural History; BAE, Bureau of American Ethnology; CMCiv, Canadian Museum of Civilization; CFMJ, Canadian Folk Music Journal; CJNS, Canadian Journal of Native Studies; JAF, Journal of American Folklore; JIFMC, Journal of the International Folk Music Council; JR, Jesuit Relations; RAQ, Recherches amérindiennes au Québec, TRSC, Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada.
European Observers And Participants 1600-1860
As in other countries, the study of music cultures in the area now called Canada has changed in relation to the interests of the observers or writers. The earliest European travellers, missionaries, and settlers were curious about contrasts between the performances and social contexts they observed in the New World and those of the European society to which they often addressed their writings.
Jacques Cartier observed Indian singing and dancing on his first (1534) and second (1535-36) voyages to Canada; while the Iroquois of Hochelaga had the opportunity to study Cartier's crew members who in turn played 'trompettes et aultres instrumens de musicque' (H.P. Biggar The Voyages of Jacques Cartier Published from the originals with translations, notes and appendices, Ottawa, 1924, p 62, 134, 167). Marc Lescarbot (ca 1570-ca 1630) made the first known transcriptions of Indian songs at Port Royal 1606-07: three Micmac melodies with a description of typical performance, in his Histoire de la Nouvelle-France, book 6, chapter 5 (Paris 1609; 3rd edn, Paris 1617, p 729). They were republished in Father Gabriel Sagard-Théodat's Histoire du Canada (Paris 1636), who converted Lescarbot's solfège notation to staff notation, and added rhythmic notation and harmony parts. Sagard had previously recorded part of the text of a Wyandot (Huron) dance song, collected 1623-4, and first published, along with a description of the use of dreams in curative singing and dancing, in his earlier version of the Histoire, Le Grand Voyage du Pays des Hvrons (Paris 1632). For purposes of comparison, both Lescarbot and Sagard provided transcriptions of two Tupinambà songs collected in Brazil by Jean de Léry which have since been confused with the Canadian songs by numerous writers, eg, Marain Mersenne, in Harmonie universelle (Paris 1637) and Jean-Jacques Rousseau, in the Dictionnaire de la musique (Geneva 1767). In the manuscript 'Recit des voyage et des decouvertes du Pere Jacques Marquette de la Compagnie du Jésus en l'année 1673,' held in Chantilly (ed by Jean Delanglez, Mid-America, vol 28, no. 3-4, 1946), there is a description of a Calumet ceremony performed by the Illinois Indians and transcription - inadequate, according to the transcriber, because of the limitations of Western notation - of 'quelqu'une des Chansons qu'ils ont coûtume de chanter' (JR, vol 59, 1673-7, p 136; the description of the dance is found on p 130-6; an inaccurately copied version of the transcription in Thwaite's notes, p 311; a facsimile of part of the recit version in Stevenson 1973, p 20). Claude Dablon, the explorer who edited the manuscript, mentioned 'quelques airs tres-mélodieux qu'ils [the Oumami, one of the Illinois Nations, in present day Wisconsin] chantoient de tres-bon accord' (JR, vol 55, 1670-1, p 204).
Details about the context of music-making among Native groups abound in reports and travel accounts of the 17th to mid-19th centuries. Notable among the many references to Indian music by missionaries are the descriptions of Indian singing, drumming and dancing in the diary of Father Paul Le Jeune (1591-1664), superior of the Canadian missions 1632-9 (JR, vol 5, p 27, and vol 6, p 183 ff). The diary also contains references to European oral traditions and social dancing (see Missionaries in the 17th century; Dancing, pre-Confederation). Travel accounts with more than passing reference include Baron de Lahontan's Nouveaux voyages dans l'Amérique septentironale (The Hague 1703); Baqueville de la Potherie's Histoire de la Histoire de l'Amerique Septentrionale (Paris 1722), cited above; Joseph-Francois Lafitau's Moeurs des Sauvages Ameriquains (2 vols, Paris 1724) containing drawings of musical instruments (reproduced in Tehariolina 1984, p 355); Pierre-François-Xavier de Charlevoix's Histoire et description générale de la Nouvelle-France (Paris 1744); Pehr Kalm's En resa til Norra America (English transl as Travels into North America, London 1770-1; repr New York 1966), with an extensive account of Indian dancing at St-Jean, on the Richelieu River; Issac Weld's Travels through the States of North America and the Provinces of Upper and Lower Canada, during the Years 1795, 1796, and 1797 (London 1799), describing Indian dances and instruments at Kalden, opposite Detroit; and Johann Georg Kohl's Kitchi-Gami; oder, Erzählungen vom Obern See. Ein Beitrag zur Characteristik der amerikanischen Indianer (Bremen 1859; English transl London 1860, repr Minneapolis 1985), with observations on Ojibwa and voyageur music of the Lake Superior region. Early references to music of the Haida in the Queen Charlotte Islands [Haida Gwaii] (and a transcription from Baranof Island, in Alaska) are found in William Beresford's A Voyage round the World: but more particularly to the North-West Coast of America: Performed in 1785, 1786, 1787 and 1788... By Capt. George Dixon (London 1789). The explorer Sir John Ross made an early regional comparison, noting differences between the singing and dance of Inuit in the vicinity of Repulse Bay and that of Greenlanders, in Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of Northwest Passage and of a Residence in the Arctic Regions During the years 1829, 1830, 1831, 1832, 1833 (London 1835), p 287.
References to the singing of French colonists and their descendants are made by Kalm and Weld in their above-cited works, and by François-Alexandre Frédéric, duc de La Rochefoucauld-Liancourt in Voyage dans les États-Unis d'Amérique fait en 1795, 1796 et 1797, par La Rochefoucauld-Liancourt (8 vols, Paris 1799; vol 2, Excursion dans le Haut-Canada). Weld and La Rochefoucauld were among the first to mention the songs of voyageurs, which held the interest of European visitors for the next 50 years. According to L.F.R. Masson in Les bourgeois de la compagnie du NordOuest, vol 1 (Quebec City 1889-90), the Norwegian Ferdinand Wentzel collected voyageur songs which were 'obscene and unfit for publication' in the early-19th century. References to voyageur songs are found in John Bradbury's Travels in the Interior of America, in the Year 1809, 1810, and 1811 (London 1817, 1819), and John M. Duncan's Travels through Part of the United States and Canada in 1818 and 1819 (Glasgow 1823). Texts of voyageur songs were transcribed by John Mactaggart in Three Years in Canada (vol 1, London 1829), and by Anna Jameson in Winter Studies and Summer Rambles in Canada (New York 1839). By 1848 R.M. Ballantyne lamented the passing of voyageur singing in the eastern regions as steamboats came into use on the Ottawa river in his Hudson's Bay (Edinburgh 1848).
There are no extant reports of collections of European-language folk music prior to the 19th century. Early manuscript collections, presumably for private use, include an untitled notebook of French-Canadian songs made in 1817 by Cécile Lagueux (possibly the earliest such manuscript) and a collection made by Edward Ermatinger, an employee 1818-26 of the Hudson's Bay Company, published by Barbeau as 'The Ermatinger collection of voyageur songs (ca. 1830),' in JAF, vol 67, no. 264, 1954 (see Manuscript books). Published collections were for commercial, not scholarly purposes. The earliest publication - barring Thomas Moore's 'Canadian Boat Song' (London 1805), which may have been largely an original composition (see 'Canadian Boat Song') - is Canadian Airs (London 1823), based on melodies collected by Lieut George Back. The long piano introductions and extensive expressive indications, as well as the replacement of the original texts, demonstrate more about the practices of the intended consumers of the collection - the swelling ranks of bourgeois British piano-owning households - than they do about the people from whom the melodies were collected. During the period from the 1837 rebellions to the early years of Confederation, a number of song collections were published aimed at a Canadian market. Possibly the first was made by a law student, Joseph Laurin, Le Chansonnier canadien: ou, Nouveau recueil de chansons (Quebec City 1838). Later similar collections included literary items as well as folksong texts and some music. Two titles which went through several editions were La Lyre canadienne 'par un amateur' (Quebec City 1847), and Le Chansonnier des collèges (Quebec City 1850). The latter was subsequently published as Le Chansonnier des collèges mis en musique (Quebec City 1860). There are no known manuscript collections of folksongs from Upper Canada to parallel those of Ermatinger and Lagueux. However there are several manuscript collections of instrumental music, for example, a 28-page book which belonged to the Ontario farmer Allen Ash (1801-90), containing waltzes, reels, galops, hornpipes, and other dances (see Manuscript books).
Canadian And Foreign Collectors, 1860-1900
This period was characterized by an emphasis on collecting, for purposes of amateur performance, commerce, nationalism (to establish national identity based on folk heritage), or preservation of traditions perceived as dying. The Canadian frontier captured the imagination of central European ethnologists, and in the 1890s Canada became one of the first countries in which the phonograph was used to record indigenous music. Studies varied in the extent to which they provided documentation of song functions, performers, composers and musical customs. The Indian and French-Canadian repertoires were the foci of attention.
F.-A.-H. LaRue's 'Les chansons populaires et historiques du Canada' (Le foyer canadien, vol 1, 1863) was the first collection to include a study of the songs, anticipating by two years the serial publication in Le foyer canadien of Ernest Gagnon'sChansons populaires du Canada whose bound versions constituted the first of many editions (Quebec City 1865; see Folk music, Franco-Canadian). Unlike LaRue, Gagnon included music as well as song texts in his collection. He included studies on the origins and variants of each song and a final analytical chapter, warning against imposing modern attitudes and habits on this repertoire and argued for the rationality, expressiveness, and dignity of the musical system and drawing upon the theories of Fétis and d'Ortigue to explain a relationship of similar modality which he saw between plainchant and folksong, which, he thought, reflected not musical tradition but rather societies connected by similarly virtuous stock. He showed awareness of different purposes in transcription - what Charles Seeger later called 'prescriptive' and 'descriptive' transcription - when he dropped some ornaments from the first edition of Chansons populaires, to make the songs easier to sing. He also outlined a Bartók-like distinction between two types of rhythm - 'poétique' and 'prosaique' or 'oratoire' - used in folksong (Gagnon 1880, p 195).
Numerous 19th-century novelists and playwrights included material on French-Canadian singing in their works, ranging from passing descriptive remarks to virtual collections of song texts, eg, Philippe-Joseph Aubert de Gaspé's Les Anciens Canadiens (Quebec City 1863); de Gaspé's Mémoires (Ottawa 1866); and Ernest Myrand'sNoëls anciens de la Nouvelle-France (Quebec City 1899). François Brassard in Ethnomusicology (vol 16, Sep 1972), comments on the wide sphere of influence of these publications as demonstrated by the large number of personal and family anthologies, many still extant, which were compiled from them. A noteworthy unpublished manuscript is Mgr Thomas Hamel's 'Annales musicales du Petit-Cap' compiled 1865-1908, and preserved in the archives of the Séminaire de Québec. Indications exist of a parallel literature for English Canada; for example, a travel account by 'C.H.C'. titled It Blows, It Snows (Dublin 1846) describes ubiquitous hymn and psalm singing among English-Canadians and by former 'inhabitants of the Netherlands' (CIHM/ICMH Microfiche series no. 48401, p 135). Ralph Connor described lining out, with a transcription of 'St Paul's' showing 'the extraordinary slides and slurs [which] almost obliterated the notes of the original tune,' in his historical novel The Man from Glengarry: A Tale of the Ottawa (Chi, NY 1901, p 127-141).
Collections of Native music generally contain ethnographic or analytic material in addition to the music collected. Among the early 19th-century collectors of Indian songs were Gagnon (Les Sauvages de l'Amérique et l'art musical, Quebec City 1907), L'Abbé Lionel Saint-George Lindsay, (Notre-Dame de la Jeune-Lorette en la Nouvelle-France: Étude Historique, Montreal 1900; in serial form in La revue canadienne, Montreal 1899-1902; the section concerning music, 'La langue et les chants des Hurons', appeared in vol 40, 1901, p 266-82) and John Reade's 'Some Wabanaki songs..'. in the TRSC, series 1, vol 5, section II, 1897, p 1-8.
Two studies of Canadian interest often are credited as the earliest in the discipline of comparative musicology: Theodore Baker's Über die Musik der nordamerikanischen Wilden (Leipzig 1882), which includes transcriptions of and references to Canadian tribes, and Carl Stumpf's 'Lieder der Bellakula Indianer' (Vierteljahresschrift für Musikwissenschaft, 1886), a musicological study with nine transcriptions of songs performed by a group of Bella Coola Indians who visited Germany in 1885. The German-US anthropologist Franz Boas began collecting songs of West Coast Indians in the 1880s; his early publications (eg, 'Chinook Songs,' JAF, 1888, p 220-6; 'Kwakiutl Songs and Dances,' JAF, 1888, p 49-64) inspired a generation of collection activity in British Columbia by persons such as Henri Tate, Marius Barbeau, Edward Sapir, Thomas McIlwraith and James A. Teit. His thinking extensively influenced the course of North American anthropolgy and ethnomusicology. 'Chinook songs' anticipates many concerns of recent ethnomusicology: urban settings, Christian missionary influence on secular music, acculturation, and the problem of 'writing culture'.
The beginning of outside interest in Inuit music is marked by Boas's The Central Eskimo (BAE 6th Annual Report, Washington, DC 1888) with 19 melodies (15 newly collected) from Baffin Island and Greenland. Other songs from the same expedition were published in 'Eskimo Tales and Songs' in the JAF, vol 2, 1889, in which an example of staffless notation appears; JAF, vol 7, 1894, and JAF, vol 10, 1897. Boas later worked with material collected 1897-9 by Capt George Comer, who recorded 4 1/2 hours of Inuit songs (and some hymns) on cylinders (Boas, The Eskimo of Baffin Land and Hudson Bay, New York 1901, AMNH Bulletin, vol 15; see Lee Native North American Music and Aural Data, Bloomington, Ind, 1979, p 54). Boas' major study of the Kwakiutl was based on work begun in 1885 but published posthumously (Helen Codere, ed, Kwakiutl Ethnography, Chicago 1966).
An associate of Boas and a member of the team of the Geological Survey of Canada, James A. Teit first collected tales among the Salish of the Thompson River area in British Columbia in the 1890s, and subsequently recorded songs among various British Columbia tribes. A number of these recordings were submitted by Boas to Otto Abraham and Erich von Hornbostel in Berlin, two of the founders of ethnomusicology, who published their transcriptions and analysis as 'Phonographierte Indianermelodien aus Britisch-Columbia' (Boas Anniversary Volume, New York 1906). Boas and Teit were the first to record Indian music in Canada; the next was A.T. Cringan, who transcribed and discussed his wax cylinder recordings of Iroquois songs in the Annual Archeological Report series of Ontario (1899, 1903, 1906; see also David Boyle 'Iroquois Music,' Annual Archeological Report, Ontario, 1898) and other publications. Reports of Naskapi and Inuit drumming, singing, and dancing in Ungava appear in the late-19th century, eg, Lucien M. Turner, Indians and Eskimos in the Quebec-Labrador Peninsula (1894) and 'The single-headed drum of the Naskopie,' Proceedings of the U.S. National Museum, vol 11, 1898). The early years of the JAF contain numerous descriptive accounts of dances and ceremonies: eg, William M. Beauchamp on Onondaga dance (vol 6, 1893); Mary E. Brown on Passamaquoddy chief-making (vol 5, 1892); John C. Fillmore on a Kwakiutl woman's song (vol 6, 1893).
First Nations Research, 1900-80
Scholarship in the 20th century has exhibited a diversity of approaches developed in folklore and anthropology as well as music research. Certain characteristics distinguish the studies done in Euro-Canadian communities from those in Native communities (although Marius Barbeau, Helen Creighton, and Kenneth Peacock have researched in both). Native music attracted anthropologists and music scholars rather than folklorists, virtually all from outside the linguistic and cultural communities they studied, and most committed to salvaging products of what were taken as fast-dying traditions. Most research concentrated on music ethnology and on the definition of the musical style of particular repertoires, often defined by function. Folk music studies, on the other hand, were often undertaken by members of the cultural and linguistic community under scrutiny, and much work focussed on the history, diffusion, and variants of individual songs.
Several comparative studies of North American Indian musical styles have been attempted: Helen Roberts' Musical Areas of Aboriginal North America (New Haven, Conn 1936), Bruno Nettl's 'North American Indian musical styles' (JAF, vol 67, 1954; revisions and self-critique in 'Musical areas reconsidered: a critique of North American Indian research,' Gustave Reese and Robert Snow, eds, Essays in Musicology, Pittsburgh 1969), and Margaret Sargent's 'The Native and primitive music of Canada,' B MUS essay, University of Toronto 1942. None are dependable with regard to the Canadian repertoires since so little field research had been conducted at the time of their publication.
In the Eastern Woodlands area W.H. Mechling recorded and transcribed Malecite and Micmac songs at St Mary's Bay, NB in 1911. The same year, Julien Tiersot published his observations from visits 1905-6 to the Kahnawake and Lorette reserves in 'La musique chez les peuples indigenes de l'Amerique du Nord (Etats Unis et Canada),' (Notes d'ethnographie musicale, series 2, Paris 1911), and Marius Barbeau began recording songs of various Native groups including Hurons, Algonquins, and Iroquois. Barbeau's 'Seven songs from Lorette' were published by Margaret Sargent (JAF, vol 63, Apr-Jun 1950). Both Mechling and Barbeau were collecting for the new Anthropology Division of the Museum Branch of the Geological Survey of Canada, directed by Edward Sapir, who also conducted Micmac research around this time. The US anthropologist Frank Speck recorded Delaware and Tutelo songs at the Six Nations Reserve in Ontario and collected artifacts including musical instruments in Quebec communities. His best-known ethnographic research, conducted in Labrador, is Naskapi, (Norman, Okla 1935) which focuses on spirituality and Native conceptual frameworks. Transcriptions of songs are included in Penobscot Man (Philadelphia 1940). Other ethnographic research which encompassed music, dance, and ceremonial life was conducted by F.W. Waugh (Lac Seul Ojibwe, Six Nations Iroquois, and Labrador Naskapi), and Diamond Jenness (Parry Island Ojibwe and Copper Inuit; transcriptions of songs of the latter were made by Helen Roberts; see below).
The copious ethnographic literature about the Iroquois Nations of southern Ontario and northern New York includes many references to music, especially ceremonial music; see especially, Arthur Parker (1909), J.N.B. Hewitt (1903, 1907, 1928), William Fenton (1936), and Elisabeth Tooker (1970); for full citations see Native North Americans in Canada, Bibliography for 5/ Eastern Woodlands. A detailed organological study was made by H.C. Conklin and William Sturtevant in 'Seneca Indian singing tools at Coldspring longhouse,' Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, vol 97, no. 3, 1953.
Beginning in 1925, US dancer and anthropologist Gertrude Kurath made a large collection of Iroquois music in various New York State and Ontario communities - see especially Dance and Song Rituals of Six Nations Reserve, Ontario (Ottawa 1968); for further references see Kealiinohomoku and Gillis, Ethnomusicology, 1970. Kurath's invention of a system of dance notation provided the first detailed record of social and ceremonial dances. William Fenton made recordings of ceremonial and social dance music in the 1940s, edited a symposium on Iroquois culture in the 1950s (Symposium on Local Diversity in Iroquoia Culture, BAE Bulletin 149, 1951), collaborated with Gertrude Kurath on several publications ('The Iroquois Eagle Dance,' BAE, Bulletin 156, 1953) and published a large-scale study of medicine societies (The False Faces of the Iroquois, Norman, Okla 1987). Further recordings were made at the Six Nations Reserve by Douglas Riley and Mieczylaw Kolinski in the 1960s. The latter published an analysis of variants of an Apache Rabbit Dance song cycle from this collection (Ethnomusicology, vol 16, Sep 1972). Jack Frisch recorded Mohawk music and studied midwinter rites at the St Regis Reservation near Cornwall, Ont. in 1968 and 1970.
Eastern Woodlands nations which were traditionally migratory received much less attention than the Iroquoian nations. Alika Podolinsky Webber did anthropological research among Naskapi Indians in northern Labrador in the 1960s and among Algonquin communities in the 1970s, depositing artifact collections and recordings at the CMCiv and the Musée de la Civilization (Quebec City). Richard Preston's research from 1968 on includes eastern Cree music at Fort George (Chisasibi), Que (see Cree Narrative: Expressing the Personal Meaning of Events (Ottawa 1975). Frances Densmore, whose books on a wide variety of North American Indian music are early landmarks, used some material from communities living within Canadian borders in Chippewa Music (Washington, DC 1910, 1913) and Frederick R. Burton's American Primitive Music (New York 1909, repr Port Washington, NY 1969) also focused on the Ojibwe. Ghislaine Lecourse compiled a manuscript of folklore in Gull Bay, Lake Nipigon, Ont, and Shirley Daniels researched Ojibway Songs, Narratives, and Other Traditions from the Lake of the Woods (Ottawa 1968).
Among the Plains Indians, collecting has concentrated on Blackfoot and Cree communities. Pliny Goddard's early work in Alberta, under the auspices of the AMNH, also extended to the Sarcee (eg, 'Dancing societies of the Sarsi Indians,' Anthropological Papers of the AMNH, vol 11, 1914; 'Notes on the sun dance of the Sarsi,' ibid, vol 16, 1919; 'Notes on the sun dance of the Cree of Alberta,' ibid, vol 16, 1919). While centred largely in US communities, Clark Wissler's and Alanson Skinner's many publications on the Cree, Ojibwe, and Menominee from the same period (two are included in the Anthropological Papers of the AMNH, vol 16, 1919) contain extensive descriptions and interpretations of the symbolism of musical instruments and ceremonies. Among the first Canadian recordings of Plains music were those of Blackfoot music in Alberta by Jane Richardson Hanks in 1939. However, recorded collections dating from the turn of the century, made in Montana by George Bird Grinnell (1897), Walter McClintock (1898), Clark Wissler (1903-4) and others, are important sources for Canadian music history, as the national boundary was of little importance to Native musicians. Descriptions of musical life in Canada among Plains Natives from around the same time and earlier are found in the Annual Reports of the Department of Indian Affairs (see Witmer, The Musical Life of the Blood Indians, Ottawa 1982, p 91-7). Donald Hartle in 1949, and Bruno Nettl in 1952 collected Blackfoot songs within Canadian Borders. Nettl's four-part 'Studies in Blackfoot Indian musical culture' (Ethnomusicology, vols 11-12, 1967, 1968) examines both the musical structures and social functions of songs. Roma Standefer's 'The function of dances in Blackfoot Indian society' (manuscript, no date) and Hugh Dempsey's 'Social dances of the Blood Indians of Alberta,' (JAF, vol 69, 1956), and The Blackfoot Ghost Dance (Calgary 1968) complement the music literature. Within the enormous body of literature on the Plains sun dance, only a few studies have been based on events in Canada. These include aforementioned work by Goddard, Wilson Wallis' The Sun Dance of the Canadian Dakota, (Anthropological Papers of the AMNH, New York 1921) and a more recent description by Lloyd O'Brodovich ('Plains Cree sun dance,' Western Canadian Journal of Anthropology, vol 1,1968). In the 1950s, a collection of western Cree music was made by Kenneth Peacock (Folkways FE-4464). Social dance music and powwow songs became much more widely available in the 1970s when Indian House and Canyon issued extensive lists of Native recordings (IH-4051-4052, IH-4001-4001, CR-6133, CR-6135, CR-6176, CR-9002, CR-9004). While most studies have focused on traditional ceremonial and social music, Robert Witmer has investigated both traditional and 'white' music including country and western and Christian hymns among the Blood Indians of Alberta (CFMJ, vol 2, 1974; The Musical Life of the Blood Indians, Ottawa 1982).
Documentation of the Athapaskan and Plateau Nations music is scant. Studies of the Athapaskan Sarcee were discussed earlier. From 1912 to 1922, James Teit continued recording music of the Sikani, Tahltan, Tlingit, Carrier, Okanagan, and Thompson Indians in the interior of British Columbia (recordings housed at the CMCiv). His unpublished field material was used extensively in Wendy Wickwire's MA thesis (York University, 1978). Alden J. Mason collected Sikani songs in Fort Rae in 1913 (recordings in the CMCiv), incorporating this material in Notes on the Indians of the Great Slave Lake area (New Haven, Conn 1946). Associates of the British Columbia Language Project (directed by Randy Bouchard and Dorothy Kennedy in the early 1980s) contributed song collections to the CMCiv.
Among sub-Arctic Nations, Robin Ridington's Beaver Indian research focuses extensively on music-related subjects, eg, Swan People: A study of the Dunne-za prophet dance (Ottawa 1978); 'Beaver Indian dreaming and singing,' Anthropologica, 1971. A short study was published on the Interior Salish by Graham George (based on Barbeau's collection; Journal of the International Folk Music Council, vol 14, 1962). Wendy Bross Stuart subsequently conducted a detailed study of the Coast Salish hand game (Gambling Music of the Coast Salish Indians, [Vancouver] 1972). A parallel study had been conducted earlier among the Dogrib by June Helm and Nancy Lurie (Dogrib Hand Game, Ottawa 1966; music transcriptions by Gertrude Kurath). Prior to 1980, studies by trained ethnomusicologists were rare but the work of Michael Asch (eg, 'Social context and the musical analysis of Slavey drum dance songs,' Ethnomusicology, vol 19, no. 2, 1975) are noteworthy for their attempt to use linguistic models to integrate ethnographic data with sound structures. Similarly influenced was Norma McLeod's 'The semantic parameter in music: the blanket rite of the lower Kutenai,' Yearbook for Inter-American Musical Research, vol 7, 1971.
The magnificent art of North Pacific Coast tribes, coveted and often claimed by European visitors (especially prior to the abolition of the potlatch from 1884 to 1950), is responsible, at least in part, for the intensity of research interest in this area. (See earlier references to work by Stumpf, Abraham, Boas, and von Hornbostel.) Henri Tate collected Tsimshian song texts 1906-09 (manuscript in the American Philosophical Library, Philadelphia). Important studies include Frances W. Galpin's 'The whistles and reed instruments of the Northwest Coast,' (Proceedings of the Musical Association, vol 29, 1903), Martha Warren Beckwith's 'Dance forms of the Moqui and Kwakiutl Indians,' (Proceedings of the 15th International Congress of Americanists, vol 2, 1907) and John Swanton's 'Haida songs,' (AESoc Proceedings, vol 3, 1912). Marius Barbeau, whose interests ranged from songs to totem poles, visited communities on the Nass and Skeena Rivers in the 1920s; among his collaborators, in 1927, was Ernest MacMillan. In the same decade Edward Sapir collected among the Nootka (a study based on his collection was subsequently published: Helen Roberts and Morris Swadesh, Songs of the Nootka Indians of Western Vancouver Island, Philadelphia 1955), and Thomas McIlwraith among the Bella Coola (The Bella Coola Indians, 2 vols, Toronto 1948). Densmore's extensive collecting extended to the Nootka and Quileute in the late 1930s and 1940s (Nootka and Quileute Music, BAE Bulletin 134, 1939). Viola Edmundson Garfield's The Tsimshian: Their Arts and Music, (AESoc Publication XVIII, 1966) is based on earlier work. More recently, collections have been made by Elizabeth Cass (Gwich'in, 1959), Catherine McClellan (Southern Yukon, 1962-8), Bill Folan and George August (Nootka, Kwakiutl, 1966-7), Eugene Arima (Haida, Kwakiutl, 1963-5), Suki Anderson (Bella Coola, 1972), Wendy Bross Stuart (Coast Salish, 1972-3), Phil Davis (Bella Coola, 1966-7), and Marie-Françoise Guédon (Tshimshian and Nebesna, beginning in 1969). Among the publications emanating from this work are several Mercury Series monographs issued by the CMCiv. One of the most extensive and valuable collections is that of Ida Halpern, who began to record from Nootka and Haida chiefs in 1949. A portion of her raw field data (interview transcripts, notes, some song transcriptions and analyses) has been published in booklets with each of several recordings issued by Folkways (FE-4523, FE-4524, FE-4119). She wrote on song text vocables ('On the interpretation of "meaningless nonsensical syllables" in the music of the Pacific Northwest Indians,' Ethnomusicology, vol 20, no. 2, 1976); the accuracy of some of her documentation has been challenged by Linda Goodman (see review in Ethnomusicology, vol 25, no. 1, 1981) who has produced an introduction to Music and Dance in Northwest Coast Indian Life (Tsaile, Ariz 1972) for the Navajo Community College. See Native North Americans in Canada for further references to anthropological studies of relevance to ethnomusicology.
Inuit (Eskimo) music has received steady attention since the early efforts of Boas. Large exploratory projects such as the Canadian Arctic Expedition (1914-18) and the fifth Thule Expedition (1921-4) produced important collections of tapes, texts, transcriptions, and detailed ethnographic descriptions of the traditional way of life of the Inuit. The Norwegian composer and traveller Christian Leden recorded in 1914 in the Keewatin area (collection housed at the Musée de Neuchâtel, Switzerland; copies at the CMCiv). While with the Canadian Arctic Expedition of 1913-18, Diamond Jenness recorded 137 songs which formed the basis for his and Helen H. Roberts' Eskimo Songs: Songs of the Copper Eskimos (Report of the Canadian Arctic Expedition, 1913-1918, vol 14, Ottawa 1925). Five hours of music were recorded on Donald Baxter MacMillan's 1917 Croker Land expedition (see Lee Native North American Music and Aural Data, Bloomington, Ind1979, p 55). Knud Rasmussen collected and published a large number of song texts on the Fifth Thule Expedition (1921-4). In 1938 Jean Gabus recorded three hours of Caribou Inuit music from the area west of Hudson Bay; the collection of 78s is housed in Neuchâtel and provided the basis for analytical work by Zygmunt Estreicher, who explored such widely varying subjects as polyphony, melodic structure, and musical evolution (eg, 'La musique des Esquimaux-Caribous,' Bulletin de la Société Neuchâteloise de Géographie, vol 5, no. 1, 1948). Another pioneer, Laura Boulton, began recording music on the west coast of Hudson Bay in 1941 and 1942; her collections are housed at the Center for Studies in Ethnomuscology at Columbia U (see Rahn 1977). Asen Balikci made extensive field recordings of Inuit songs, games, and legends from Povungnituq, Que, and Pelly Bay, NWT, during the 1960s (in the CMCiv).
A renaissance of academic interest in Inuit music occurred in the 1970s: Maija Lutz worked in Pangnirtung, Baffin Island and Nain, Labrador (the survival of a Moravian-influenced brass band tradition in the latter had earlier attracted the interest of musicians in southern Canada; see Moravian missions in Labrador); Beverley Diamond in Gjoa Haven and Pelly Bay, NWT; Doreen Binnington in Coppermine, NWT; Nicole Beaudry in Cape Dorset, Baffin Island; other members of the Groupe de recherche en semiologie musicale directed by J-J. Nattiez from the University of Montreal in several communities in northern Quebec; Nattiez, himself, in Pond Inlet, Baffin Island, and Iglulik, NWT; Ramón Pelinski in Rankin Inlet and Eskimo Point on the west shore of Hudson Bay. For citations of publications based on these studies see Native North Americans in Canada, section 7. At the same time, studies of Alaskan (by Lorraine Korranda and Thomas Johnston) and Greenlandic styles (by Poul Rovsing Olsen and Michael Hauser) facilitated comparative study, eg, Johnston's Eskimo Music by Region: A Comparative Circumpolar Study (Ottawa 1976). Hauser explored historical diffusion from Greenland to South Baffin Island ('Inuit songs from Southwest Baffin Island in cross-cultural context,' Etudes/Inuit/Studies, vol 2, no. 1, 1978) foreshadowing interest in historically specific studies of Native musics in the 1980s. Both the Groupe de recherche en sémiologie musicale and scholars at Laval University analysed vocal games of Eastern Inuit women. Lutz and Cavanagh examined aspects of acculturation, while Pelinski developed a system for the computer analysis of melodic patterns.
Franco-canadian Research, 1900-80
The outstanding collections of Gagnon and LaRue inspired a great deal of research which emphasized collection, careful textual transcription, and the codification of variants. The outstanding efforts of Marius Barbeau broadened the scope of research which subsequently became less concerned with portraying Canada as a repository for archaic European traditions, and more concerned with documenting a wide variety of national practices. The CMCiv, and later, Laval University, the University of Sudbury, and the University of Moncton have played major roles.
Turn of the century studies include Cyrus MacMillan's thesis, 'The folk songs of Canada' (PH D, Harvard 1909), in which folk music is associated only with the French, and Julien Tiersot's Forty-four French Folk-songs and Variants from Canada, Normandy, and Brittany (G. Schirmer 1910).
In 1910 the anthropological linguist Edward Sapir came to Canada to head the anthropology division of the museum branch of the Geological Survey of Canada (subsequently incorporated into what is now the Canadian Museum of Civilization). His 1911 hiring of Marius Barbeau as staff ethnologist was a decisive step for ethnomusicology in Canada. Barbeau was unquestionably the central figure in the study of both Native and folk music during the next 40 years. (See Barbeau; Folk music, Franco-Canadian; and Native North Americans in Canada).
In 1919 Barbeau collaborated with E.-Z. Massicotte on a collection published as 'Chants populaires du Canada' (JAF, vol 32, no. 123). Most of the songs were collected on cylinder recordings between 1917 and 1918, although some were from Massicotte's notebook of folksongs collected in Quebec and Ontario between 1883 and 1911. Barbeau himself had been collecting songs in Quebec since 1916, ultimately assembling some 10,000 songs in manuscript or wax cylinder for the national museum (CMCiv); many appeared in a series of popular collections (eg, Romancero du Canada, Montreal 1937). His projected 4-volume Repertoire de la Chanson Folklorique Française du Canada, was partially published during his lifetime (Le Rossignol Y Chante, (Ottawa 1962, 1979); posthumous volumes by 1991 included En Roulant Ma Boule (Ottawa 1982) and Le Roi Boit, Lucien Ouellet, ed (Ottawa 1987). The proceedings of the 1919 Veillées du bon vieux temps included transcriptions of several instrumental pieces for violin or guimbarde (jew's harp) as well as a number of songs from Massicotte's collection (Veillées du bon vieux temps, Montréal 1920; see p 86-93 et passim). Barbeau was motivated in part by the desire to provide an authentic basis for national music; he objected to the view of Canadian music as typified by a set of 'variationes banales pour piano, composées il y a un demi-siecle par un Allemand en voyage' (Barbeau, 'Préface,' in Veillées du bon vieux temps, Montréal 1920, p 1-6). Songs from his collection were arranged by Ernest MacMillan, Oscar O'Brien, Healey Willan, and others.
Barbeau's nationalism was shared by other promoters of folk song who did not necessarily share his concern for authentic presentation. The Abbé F.-X. Burque, in the preface to his Chansonnier Canadien-Français (Quebec City 1921) expressed the feeling that folksongs needed 'les retouches' so that they would remain popular; in particular, problems such as poor grammar in the texts needed correction (p vii-viii).
In the 1920s and 1930s, there was a return to the commercial presentation of traditional music, in the form of commercial recordings of violoneux and accordeonistes, such as J.B. Roy, Joseph Allard, J.O. LaMadeleine, or Alfred Montmarquette, especially for Victor and Starr (see Pionniers du disque folklorique québécois).
Decisive steps in French-Canadian folk music studies were the founding, in 1944, of the Archives de folklore at Laval University (under the directorship of Luc Lacourcière) and in 1946, of a journal with the same name. (After four issues which were composites of articles on diverse topics, the Archives de Folklore series evolved into a monograph series). Independent publications include Conrad Laforte'sCatalogue de la chanson folklorique française (first version, 1958), a project of international significance. As cataloguer of the huge archival collection, Laforte was well-positioned to establish a list of variant titles and to tackle the enormous problem of classifying French-language folksong texts. The 1958 catalogue accomplishes the first of these tasks; it includes an alphabetical listing of songs with cross references to variants, other titles, and first lines. The actual classification system, using poetic structure rather than subject matter as the basis, was described in Poétiques de la chanson traditionelle française (Quebec City 1976) and illustrated in subsequent volumes, each on one category within the classification (see below for further description). Laforte's system has been adopted by the Canadian Museum of Civilization, the University of Moncton, and the University of Sudbury.
Carmen Roy investigated folklore in the Gaspé (and on St-Pierre and Miquelon); her first monograph, La Litterature orale en Gaspésie (Ottawa 1955), includes 23 transcriptions and comments on the oral transmission of songs. Songs from her collection were further investigated by George Proctor.
After collecting Franco-Ontarian folklore independently from 1948 to 1958, Father Germain Lemieux was appointed director of the newly founded Institut de folklore (later Centre franco-ontarien de folklore) in Sudbury in 1959. Major studies from this centre include anthologies of both stories and songs: Lemieux's Chanteurs franco-ontariens et leurs chansons (Sudbury 1964); Chansonnier franco-ontarien (Sudbury 1974-) and Mary Ann Griggs' La Chanson folklorique dans le milieu canadien-francais traditionnel/ Folk Song in the Traditional Society of French Canada (Sudbury 1969).
Acadian songs were compiled for the Moncton newspaper La voix d'Evangeline, 1938-41, by Joseph-Thomas Leblanc. Father Anselme Chiasson collected Acadian music in Cheticamp and Arichat, NS, and, with Brother Daniel Boudreau, published five volumes of Chansons d'Acadie (Les Editions de la Réparation, 1942, 1945, 1948, 1972, 1979) prior to 1980. Supervisor during the early years of the Centre d'études acadiennes (1970- ) at the University of Moncton, Charlotte Cormier reported over 100 field collections of Acadian folklore in 1975 as well as projects which encompassed journal indexing, and the adaptation of Laforte's classification systems (see 'Situation de la recherche en folklore acadien,' in CFMJ, 30-4, 1975). The centre facilitated such projects as the publication of Cormier's transcriptions of songs from southeastern New Brunswick (Écoutez tous, petits et grands, Moncton 1978) and studies by George Arsenault in Prince Edward Island and Robert Paquin (publications post-1980 are cited below) By 1980 the centre had accumulated over 5000 songs and 700 instrumental pieces.
More limited work was done in other provinces. Kenneth Peacock collected French songs in Newfoundland in the 1960s, and Gerald Thomas compiled a catalogue of Songs Sung by French Newfoundlanders (St John's 1978). Both Barbara Cass-Beggs (Seven Métis Songs, BMI Canada 1967) and Margaret MacLeod (Songs of Old Manitoba, Ryerson 1959) collected from the Métis community in Manitoba but published only a small selection of songs.
Anglo-canadian Research, 1900-80
As in French Canada, the majority of researchers in English Canada during this period concentrated on collecting, and folklore studies to a large extent outnumbered musicological and anthropological ones. A romantic and narrow concept of 'folk' confined the conceptual scope of much of the early scholarly work, as well as the geographical scope, which tended towards the Atlantic provinces with their older histories of settlement. Fortunately, active collecting was often conducted with non-scholarly and more catholic intent.
Commercial publication of folksongs flourished in the early 20th century, particularly in the Maritimes. The first of a number of text collections by James Murphy appeared in 1902 (Songs and Ballads of Newfoundland, Ancient and Modern, St John's 1902); he produced several subsequent collections of 'old songs' and 'sealers' songs,' all published in St John's: Songs and Ballads of Terra Nova, 1903; Songs of Our Land, 1904; Murphy's Sealers' Song Book, 1905; Old Songs of Newfoundland, 1912; Songs Their Fathers Sung. For Fishermen. Old Time Ditties, 1923; Songs Sung by Old-Time Sealers of Many Years Ago, 1925. A collection made by the St John's merchant Gerald S. Doyle in 1927 went through four editions (The Old-Time Songs and Poetry of Newfoundland, St John's 1927, 1940, 1955, 1966); in the 1940 edition, music was added. Later editions at least (eg, 1955) were distributed free of charge; expenses were evidently covered by the inclusion (following a precedent set by Murphy) of advertisements for domestic items. J.M. Gibbon's popular collection Canadian Folksongs, Old and New (London and Toronto 1927) contained among its arranged songs examples from Gagnon's collection with English text translations. Text-only collections known as 'come-all-ye's' - a genre which paralleled the French-Canadian chansonniers - appear from the late 1920s, eg, Stuart McCawley's Cape Breton Come All Ye (Glace Bay, NS 1929). In 1925 the first recordings of traditional Anglo fiddling were made for commercial release by Apex.
Sometimes focused more narrowly were collections of folklorists, beginning with Roy W. Mackenzie whose work along the north shores of Nova Scotia was published in 'Ballad Singing in Nova Scotia,' (JAF, vol 22, 1909) and Ballads and Sea Songs from Nova Scotia Eschewing the 'taint of theory' in his account of his collecting activities (Quest of the Ballad, Princeton, NJ 1919) he defined who might be a 'perpetuator of folk-lore,' cognizant of class differences including the collector's perception of his own place in these. In this and in his occasional concern with transmission processes, he anticipates later scholarly concerns. Like many collectors of his generation, he was less concerned with locally composed material than with Child ballads. In the early 1920s Elisabeth Greenleaf had noted some songs around Sally's Cove and in 1928 she returned with her Vassar colleague Grace Mansfield compiling Ballads and Sea Songs of Newfoundland (Cambridge, Mass 1933). During two trips to Newfoundland in 1929 and 1930, Maud Karpeles collected 200 songs, some of which were published in Folk Songs from Newfoundland (Oxford University Press 1934). 'Composed' songs were excluded, and she regretted Newfoundland's contact with 'modern civilization' (p iii). Around the same time, Helen Creighton, inspired by the work of Mackenzie, began the field work which was to yield over 4000 songs and numerous publications of the Nova Scotia and New Brunswick repertoires over the next 40 years. At first she transcribed songs on the spot aided by a portable hand organ, and later using mechanical recording devices. The first of her published collections was Songs and Ballads from Nova Scotia. She sent the songs to the English Folksong Society who classified them as 'Good and worthy of publication' and 'Genuine, but better variants known elsewhere'; but to her credit she ignored their advice and published both categories. Her autobiography (A Life in Folklore, Toronto 1975), like that of Mackenzie, constitutes an important source of information about the social context of folk music in the Maritimes.
New England folklorist Phillips Barry included 39 songs from New Brunswick in 'Songs and traditions of the Miramichi' (Bulletin of the Folksong Society of the Northeast, vol 10-12, 1935-7) and some texts collected in the southern part of the province in British Ballads from Maine (New Haven, Conn 1929; co-authored by Fannie H. Eckstorm and Mary W. Smyth). The most intensive collecting in New Brunswick itself was done by Louise Manny at the instigation of Lord Beaverbrook in 1947. With James Reginald Wilson, she published Songs of Mirimachi (Fredericton, NB 1968).
In the 1950s and 60s, the geographic field of activity and of the scope of research broadened. Many collectors and scholars continued to be attracted by Maritime traditions. Margaret Sargent visited Newfoundland for the National Museums (CMCiv) in 1950; MacEdward Leach, from the University of Pennsylvania, collected on the lower Labrador coast in 1960, publishing Folk Ballads and Songs of the Lower Labrador Coast (Ottawa 1965). The most extensive collection of Newfoundland songs, however, was made by Kenneth Peacock during summer expeditions 1951-61. His three-volume Songs of the Newfoundland Outports (Ottawa 1965) includes detailed transcriptions of music and song texts, short comments about textual ambiguities, stylistic features, and sources. Both singers and composers are identified, thus giving a human face to the transmission process. During the same period, New England folklorist Edward D. Ives collected in New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island, investigating the lumbercamp singing tradition in particular. A distinguishing trait of Ives' research is his concentration on folk composers, eg, Larry Gorman (Bloomington, Ind 1964); Joe Scott, the Woodsman-songmaker (Urbana, Ill 1978), and Lawrence Doyle: the Farmer-poet of Prince Edward Island; a Study in Local Song-making (Orono, Me 1971).
The Folklore Dept under the direction of Herbert Halpert 1968-73, and the Folklore and Language Archive (MUNFLA) of Memorial U in St John's, became established as the main centre for studies in folk music of Newfoundland. Locally-based projects on both traditional and popular music, bluegrass, and country music have been undertaken. Important publications of the 1970s include Paul Mercer's The Ballads of Johnny Burke: A Short Anthology (St John's 1974), Neil Rosenberg'sCountry Music in the Maritimes: Two Studies (St John's 1976), and Michael Taft's A Regional Discography of Newfoundland and Labrador (St John's 1979). Rosenberg's broadly based research on bluegrass flourished during this period (Bill Monroe and his Blue Grass Boys: An Illustrated Discography, Nashville, Tenn 1974).
A major achievement of the 1960s and 70s has been the initiation of research on musical traditions west of Quebec. Although Eileen Bleakney (in the Ottawa area) and Ivan H. Walton (in the Great Lakes region) had done some collecting in Ontario, Edith Fowke was effectively pioneering new territory when she began her work in the province in 1957. In the ensuing years she amassed over 1000 songs, some published in Traditional Singers and Songs from Ontario and Lumbering Songs from the Northern Woods. Fowke has contributed extensively to the academic study of specific folksongs, and at the same time has been active in making folk music available to the general public as a radio commentator and an editor of songbooks for the education market, eg, with Richard Johnston, Folksongs of Canada and Folksongs of Quebec (Waterloo, Ont 1957); Sally Go Round the Sun, and Ring Around the Moon.
In the Prairie provinces, Fowke collected songs from a Manitoba family in 1975 (CFMJ, vol 3, 1975) and Barbara Cass-Beggs recorded in Saskatchewan (Eight Songs of Saskatchewan, Toronto 1963). Like Fowke, Cass-Beggs has made a considerable contribution through her selection and editing of songs for children (eg, Canadian Folk Songs for the Young, Vancouver 1975). The most extensive study to date, however, is the unpublished 'Survey of English language music of the Canadian Prairies and foothills' (1975) by Tim B. Rogers at the University of Calgary. The breadth of Rogers' interests, including both traditional and popular repertoires, demonstrates an emerging concern with contemporary popular traditions.
In British Columbia, a thriving folk music tradition was maintained by the Vancouver Folk Song Society, which published Come All Ye, 1972-7. Philip Thomas' Songs of the Pacific Northwest remained the most extensive published anthology to 1991.
Relatively little research had been done on instrumental folk musics until the 1970s. George Proctor had made an initial survey of old-time fiddling (Contributions to Anthropology, vol 2, Ottawa 1960). Dorothy and Homer Hogan compiled a valuable bibliography ('Canadian fiddle culture,' Communique: Canadian Studies, 1977). Subsequent research is cited below.
Research On Other Ethnic Groups, 1900-1980
Although the earliest collection of material in a non-indigenous language other than French or English - Alexander Fraser's 'The Gaelic folk songs of Canada' - was published in 1903 (TRSC, series 2, vol 9, section II), Canada's ethnic multiplicity was generally ignored among the research community in the first half of the century. This unfortunate congruence of research strategy with the principles of a xenophobic immigration policy (most intensively restricted between 1896 and 1946) was only minimally mitigated by the efforts of a few scholars. Late 19th-century African-Canadian music is represented by a commercial collection dating from the US military occupation of Cuba (Famous Canadian Jubilee Singers, Plantation Lullabies. Songs Sung by the Famous Canadian Jubilee Singers, The Royal Paragon Male Quartette and Imperial Orchestra Hamilton, Ont [ca 1900]). Arthur Huff Fauset's Folklore of Nova Scotia (New York 1931) contains 20 song texts mostly collected from singers of partial or total African descent. Marius Barbeau's scholarly interests extended to other ethnic groups, eg, an unpublished study of 'Slavonic cultural influences on the North Pacific Coast,' no date. Another pioneer was the publicity director of the CPR, J.M. Gibbon, who, in collaboration with Barbeau, encouraged public awareness of the diverse ethnic traditions in Canada through the organization of a series of folksong, folkdance, and handicraft festivals beginning in 1927 and including one in Winnipeg in 1928 devoted to the music of 19 different national groups (see CPR Festivals). Laura Boulton made recordings of Gaelic music in Nova Scotia in 1941 and Ukrainian and Polish music in Winnipeg and Winnipeg Beach in 1942; the collections are in the Center for Studies in Ethnomuscology at Columbia U. Oleksander Koshetz (or Koshyts') (1875-1944) preserved a number of Ukrainian folksongs in choral settings, eg, Muzychni trory (Winnipeg 1949) and wrote on Ukrainian ritual songs in Prohenetychnyi zv'iazok ta hrupuvannia ukrains'kykh obriadovykh pisen' [Genetic relationship and classification of Ukrainian ritual songs] (Winnipeg 1945). J. Dz'obko compiled another collection, My Songs: A Selection of Ukrainian Folksongs in English Translation (Winnipeg 1958).
The involvement of Ukrainian scholars Koshetz and Dz'obko in musical research in Canada foreshadowed developments in the 1960s and 1970s. During this period, the research community itself became more diverse and began to recognize the broad ethnocultural range of people in Canada. Ukrainian-Canadian research by folklorist Robert Klymasz was exemplary in its inclusiveness and approach, including studies of important ritual cycles in The Ukrainian-Canadian Immigrant Folksong Cycle, National Museum Bulletin 234 (Ottawa 1970) and The Ukrainian Winter Folksong Cycle in Canada, National Museum Bulletin 236 (Ottawa 1970) and also of lullabies and country music; see 'A reference list on Canadian folk music,' Canadian Folk Music Society, 1978, for further bibliographic citations. Ukrainian music was also studied by Anthony Proracki and Alan Henderson (CFMJ, vol 2, 1974). Other East European communities were studied; John Glofcheskie's Folk Music in Canada's Oldest Polish Community adopts a functional framework. Doukhobor music was researched by the folklorist Mark Mealing (CFMJ, vol 4, 1976; also see his PH D thesis, 'Our people's way: a study of Doukhobor hymnody and folklife,' U of Pennsylvania 1975) and transcribed by Kenneth Peacock (Songs of the Doukhobors, National Museum Bulletin 231, Ottawa 1970).
The latter was one of several pioneering surveys conducted by Peacock for the National Museums (now the CMCiv) on the musical traditions of newer ethnic groups, especially in western Canada, eg, Survey of Ethnic Folk Music across Western Canada (Ottawa 1963); Twenty Ethnic Songs from Western Canada (Ottawa 1966); A Garland of Rue: Lithuanian Folksongs of Love and Betrothal (Ottawa 1971). The broadened scope of the museum's sponsorship was officially achieved as a result of the adoption of the federal government's 'multiculturalism' policies, announced in 1971 and providing support for ethnic groups other than the French- or English-speaking, or First Nations communities. First Nations traditions, now the mandate of the Canadian Ethnology Service, were at the same time illogically separated from those of all other ethnocultural groups, in 1991 studied within the Canadian Centre for Folk Culture Studies, directed initially by Carmen Roy. By 1975, the Centre had collected material from over 60 ethnocultural groups (see Renée Landry's 'Archival sources,' Canadian Ethnic Studies/Études ethniques du Canada, vol 7, no. 2, 1975) and Ramón Pelinski's 'The music of Canada's ethnic minorities,' Canada Music Book, 10, 1975).
Independent researchers within several different academic disciplines contributed to research within various ethnic communities. Anthropologist Frances Henry included music within her broader study of Maritime communities of African descent (eg, 'Black music in the Maritimes,' CFMJ, vol 3, 1975), while composer Paul McIntyre documented a specific context in Black Pentecostal Music in Windsor (Ottawa 1976). Music in the context of religious worship was also the subject of work by Helen Martens ('Hutterite songs: the origins and aural transmission of their melodies from the 16th century,' PH D thesis, Columbia U 1969; 'The music of some religious minorities in Canada,' Ethnomusicology, vol 16, Sep 1972), Geoffrey Clarfield ('Music in the Moroccan Jewish community in Toronto', CFMJ, vol 4, 1976) and Wesley Berg ('Choral festivals and choral workshops among the Mennonites of Manitoba and Saskatchewan, 1900-1960, with an account of early developments in Russia,' PH D thesis, U of Washington 1979), while Ruth Rubin described 'Yiddish folk songs current in French Canada,' (JIFMC, vol 12, 1972).
Asian and mid-Eastern musics were slowly receiving academic recognition. Bang-song Song wrote The Korean-Canadian Folk Song: An Ethnomusicological Study (Ottawa 1974). The most extensive work was that of Regula Qureshi who collected 1971-2 Arab- and Indo-Canadian music in Edmonton and Calgary as part of the Folk Music Project of the Provincial Museum and Archives of Alberta (her earliest publications date from this period, eg, 'Tarannum: the chanting of Urdu poetry,' Ethnomusicology, vol 13, no. 3, 1969; also see below).
Resources And Research Directions, 1980-90
From the late 1970s on, Canadian ethnomusicologists' work increased dramatically in both substantive and theoretical scope, reflecting the maturing of ethnomusicology programs in universities, demographic shifts in Canadian society, and the public recognition of ethno-cultural diversity. While many studies were framed within a single ethnicity, a new focus on inter-cultural processes emerged. This period also saw ethnomusicological research overlap popular music studies and the sociology of music, partly due to a number of ethnomusicologically-trained scholars of popular music and jazz. The sheer volume of publications at this point makes it impossible to cite comprehensively the work produced during this decade; the selection referenced herein is intended to represent the breadth of the field as well as to include singularly important works. See Social phenomenon of music. An important publication representing the state of research as of 1988 is Ethnomusicology in Canada, edited by Robert Witmer.
Canadian scholars in the 1980s made substantial contributions to the discussion of theoretical issues in ethnomusicology, such as methods of cross-cultural analysis, issues of representation and conceptual frameworks. J.-J. Nattiez continued to advance and apply methods of semiological analysis, eg, in his Fondements d'une sémiologie de la musique (Paris 1975) and Musicologie générale et sémiologie, (English transl, Music and Discourse, Princeton, NJ 1990). Jay Rahn also focussed on cross-cultural analysis, adopting an essentialist approach in A Theory for All Music: Problems and Solutions in the Analysis of Non-Western forms (Toronto 1983). In contrast, Regula Burckhardt Qureshi has studied music as (in part) an acoustic manifestation of social relations, including relations between the researcher and musician (see 'Musical sound and contextual input: a performance model for musical snalysis,' Ethnomusicology, vol 31, no. 1, 1987 and 'Focus on ethnic music,' ibid, vol 34, 1990). In a symposium devoted to issues of representation, Jocelyne Guilbault and Line Grenier examined ambiguous definitions of 'nation,' of the 'other,' and their relevance for popular music studies (Ethnomusicology, vol 34, no. 3, 1990). Similar relevance of the less-ambiguous 'state' has been considered by James Robbins, comparing Latin American and Canadian contexts ('What can we learn when they sing, eh? Ethnomusicology in the American state of Canada' in Ethnomusicology in Canada). Beverley Diamond also explored issues of representation in Canadian music history in 'Narratives in Canadian music' (in preparation in 1991). Research on the relationship of gender and music was just emerging in the late 1980s (eg, Cheryl Gillard, 'Women and music in Canada: an introduction,' MA thesis, Carleton University 1987; Diamond Cavanagh, 'Music and gender in the sub-Arctic Algonkian area,' Women in North American Indian Music: Six Essays, ed Richard Keeling, Society for Ethnomusicology Special Series No. 6, 1989). John Shepherd has followed his anthology Whose Music: A Sociology of Musical Languages (London 1977) with work emphasising critical study of popular musics, eg, 'A theoretical model for the sociomusicological analysis of popular musics,' Popular Music, vol 2, 1982; 'Music and male hegemony,' Music and Society: The Politics of Composition, Performance and Reception, eds R. Leppert and S. McClary (Cambridge, England 1987). He has also been instrumental in bringing international scholars into Canada for conferences and collaboration, eg, the conference on 'Alternative musicology,' the proceedings of which, with papers by several Canadians including Shepherd himself, Grenier, Nattiez, and Will Straw, were published in CUMR, vol 10, no. 2, 1990. While at the University of Toronto, Timothy Rice developed a tri-partite model for ethnomusicological research (with an acknowledged debt to Alan Merriam) based on historical origination, social maintenance, and individual experience (Ethnomusicology, vol 31, 1987). With Robert Falck, Rice edited a Festschrift for Mieczyslaw Kolinski, compiling some significant studies on the uses of 'comparison' in ethnomusicology (Cross-cultural Perspectives on Music, Toronto 1982).
In the 1980s catalogues and classification systems of use to researchers on Canadian music included Roy Gibbons' catalogues of the musical instrument collection of the Canadian Museum for Folk Culture Studies within the CMCiv (The CCFCS Collection of Musical Instruments, Ottawa 1982-), organological work by the SPINC Research Project, Vivian Labrie's Précis de transcription de documents d'archives orales (Quebec City 1982), Dorothy Sara Lee's Native North American Music and Oral Data: Catalogue of Sound Recordings, 1893-1976 (Bloomington, Ind 1979), and, together with Judith Gray, the Federal Cylinder Project, vol 2: The Northeast (Washington, DC 1985); vol 3: The Northwest (Washington, DC 1986); and Anthony Seeger and Louise Spear's Early Field Recordings: A Catalogue of Cylinder Collections at the Indiana University Archives of Traditional Music, (Bloomington, Ind 1987). D.W. Krummel's Resources of American Music History (Urbana, Ill 1981) contains some Canadian archival references. In addition, several bibliographies are cited in the sections below.
Canadians have participated in research dealing with new technologies, eg, Michael Bakan et al on the classification of electronic music instruments (see Selected Reports in Ethnomusicology, vol 8, 1990), and Robert Witmer with Doug Gifford on computer applications to pedal-steel guitar studies (in preparation in 1991).
First Nations Research, 1980-90
In the late 1970s and throughout the 1980s, Native music studies were sparked by a renewal of traditional values in many Native communities (facilitated in part by Elders Conferences, Inter-tribal Gatherings, and Native Cultural Centres), by the public debate of political issues regarding land and self-government, and by the concurrent fruition of a number of long-term ethnomusicological research projects.
Historiographic analyses and retrospectives were written by J-J. Nattiez ('Le disque de musique amérindienne,' RAQc, vol 8, no. 4, 1978-9; vol 10, no. 1 and 2, 1980-1; vol 11, no. 3, 1981-2), Nina De Shane ('Ethnomusicology and the study of North American Indian music,' Queen's Q, vol 90, no. 1, 1983), and Wendy Wickwire ('Theories of ethnomusicology and the North American Indian: retrospective and critique,' CUMR, vol 6, 1985).
Through its Mercury Series, the Canadian Ethnology Service of the CMCiv published several studies of Native music, many of them with a flexidisc recording enclosed: Robert Witmer's The Musical Life of the Blood Indians (1982), Maja Lutz's The Effects of Acculturation on Eskimo Music of Cumberland Peninsula (1978), and Musical Traditions of the Labrador Coast Inuit (1982), Beverley Diamond's Music of the Netsilik Eskimo: A Study of Stability and Change (1982), Anton Kolstee's Bella Coola Indian Music: A Study of the Interaction between Northwest Coast Indian Structures and their Functional Context (1982), and Ramón Pelinski's Inuit Songs from Eskimo Point, Inuit imgiusigi ajajartut (1979). In the same series are linguistic or anthropological studies which devote significant attention to musical performance.
Four special topic issues of scholarly journals were devoted to the ethnomusicology of First Nations communities. These include Études/Inuit/Studies, (vol 2, no. 1, 1978), RAQ (vol 15, no. 4, 1985, and vol 18, no. 4, 1988, both guest edited by Nicole Beaudry), and the CJNS, 1989, guest edited by Lynn Whidden). New commercial releases from Canyon, Indian House, Iroqrafts, and Sunshine records - the latter two Native-owned companies in Canada - greatly expanded the scope of recorded Native music. See also Native North Americans in Canada.
Musical ethnographies include three PH D theses: Lynn Whidden's 'An ethnomusicological study of the traditional songs of the Chisasibi (James Bay) Cree,' (University of Montreal 1986), Anton Kolstee's 'To impersonate the supernatural: music and ceremony of the Bella Bella/Heiltsuk Indians of British Columbia,' (U of Illinois 1988) and C. Mischler's 'Gwich'in Athapaskan music and dance,' (U of Texas at Austin 1981). Beaudry compared three regions in 'Singing, laughing, and playing: three examples from the Inuit, Dene and Yupik traditions,' CJNS vol 6, no. 2, 1988). Michael Asch's Kinship and the Drum Dance in a Northern Dene Community (Edmonton 1988) discusses the relations of form and function. De Shane studied the integral nature of music and dance on the Northwest coast (eg, in 'Danse de pouvoir, Ksan,' in RAQ vol 18, no. 4, 1988-9).
Several studies reflect the importance of inter-tribal gatherings during this period (eg, Lynn Whidden 'The way he walked was different: Cree music in northern Manitoba,' report for the Manitoba Secretary of State, 1981; Noel Dyck, 'Political powwow: the rise and fall of an urban Native festival,' The Celebration of Society, ed F. Manning, Bowling Green, O 1983; M. Sam Cronk et al., 'Celebration: intertribal events in eastern Canada,' Folklife Annual, 1987, Washington, DC 1988).
The importance of speech genres (eg, myth) in most Native cultures has led a number of ethnomusicologists to address issues of structure and paralinguistic performance factors (Wickware 1989; Diamond Cavanagh, 'Le myth et la musique,' RAQ, vol 15, no. 4, 1985-6). Organological studies were undertaken by the SPINC research group (See Diamond Cavanagh et al, 'Reflections: sound-producing instruments in Native communities of the Northeastern Woodlands,' in preparation in 1991), and by Elaine Keillor among the Dene ('Les tambours des Athapascans du Nord,' in RAQ vol 15, no. 4, 1985-6. Christian hymnody in Native communities was studied by Whidden ('Les hymnes, une anomalie parmi les chants traditionnels des Cris du Nord,' RAQc, vol 15, no. 4, 1985-6), Keillor ('Hymn singing among the Dogrib Indians,' Sing Out the Glad News, ed John Beckwith, CanMus Documents 1, Toronto 1987) and Diamond Cavanagh ('The performance of hymns in Eastern Woodland Indian communities,' ibid, and 'The transmission of Algonkian Indian hymns: between orality and literacy,' Musical Canada). Culture change was addressed in Richard Preston 'Transformations musicales et culturelles chez les Cris de l'Est,' in RAQ vol 15, no. 4, 1985, and Robert Witmer, 'Stability in Blackfoot songs, 1909-1968,' Ethnomusicology and Modern Music History, eds Stephen Blum et al, Urbana, Ill 1991).
Important monographs by US scholars included reference to groups within Canadian boundaries, eg, Thomas Vennum's The Ojibwe Dance Drum: Its History and Construction (Washington, DC 1982) and Bruno Nettl's Blackfoot Indian Musical Thought: Comparative Perspectives (Kent, O 1989).
Anne Lederman documented 'Old Native and Métis fiddling in two Manitoba communities: Camperville and Ebb and Flow,' (MFA thesis, York University 1987; also in a homonymn sound recording with booklet, Toronto 1987). 'Nancy Hockley' (a pseudonym for Lucinda Clemens) published Métis songs in Une chanson de verité: Folk Songs of the Prairie Métis, sound recording with listener's guide (1985, The Other Opera Company ACR-4047).
During the 1980s, in a significant methodological advance for ethnomusicology, Native cultural education centres began to balance the hitherto predominantly non-Native styles of representation with a Native perspective. Many centres have extensive cassette and video collections. Some, such as the Saskatchewan Indian Cultural Centre in Saskatoon and the Ojibwe Cree Cultural Centre at Timmins, Ont, have released commercial tapes and recordings, as well as accompanying books or other documentation. The Woodland Indian Cultural Education Centre, in Brantford, Ont, organized 'The Sound of the Drum,' a conference on Native musical traditions in October 1990 (a homonym catalogue, containing interviews with Native musicians, was edited by Sam Cronk for this event). The Iroquoian Institute, founded and directed by Jake Thomas, has produced tapes and transcriptions of speeches, stories, and songs.
Anglo- And French-canadian Research, 1980-90
A shift from folk-song collection to studies of the socio-cultural embeddedness of folksong was evident from the late 1970s. One indication of this shift is the historical (reflexive) treatment of earlier activity, eg, in Gordon E. Smith's 'Ernest Gagnon (1834-1915): musician and pioneer folksong scholar,' (PH D thesis, University of Toronto 1989) and Edith Fowke's Sea Songs and Ballads from Nineteenth-century Nova Scotia: The William H. Smith and Fenwick Hatt Manuscripts (New York 1981).
The prodigious work of the Archive de Folklore at Laval University continued under the direction of Conrad Laforte; his own Le Catalogue de la chanson folklorique francaise (Quebec City 1977-) proceded with volumes on 'Chansons en laisse' (1977), 'Chansons énumératives' (1979), and 'Chansons brèves "Les enfantines"' (1987). Laforte also contributed Survivances médiévales dans la chanson folklorique poétique de la chanson de laisse (Quebec City 1981) and Chansons folkloriques a sujet religieux (Quebec City 1988). New collections, like earlier ones, were sometimes bounded by region, eg, Marc Gagné and Monique Poulin's Chantons la chanson (Quebec City 1985) with 3 cassettes which were also released separately by Le Tamanoir (record label); Ives' Folksongs of New Brunswick (Fredericton, NB 1989) or occupation (eg, Madeleine Béland's Chansons des voyageurs, coureurs de bois et forestiers, (Quebec City 1982), but studies of individual performers became more important, eg, Donald Deschenes' C'était la plus jolie des filles: répertoire des chansons d'Angelina Paradise-Fraser, (Montreal 1982), Fowke and Rahn's LaRena Clark: Canada's Queen of Folk Songs (in preparation in 1991).
Acadian music research flourished, producing anthologies of traditional music, reference tools, and socially contexted studies: George Arsenault's Complaintes acadiennes de l'Île-du-Prince-Edouard (Montreal 1980) and his La chanson du pays (Summerside, PEI 1983); Inventaire des sources en folklore acadien, ed Ronald Labelle (Moncton 1984), and Labelle's edition of Acadian songs from the Helen Creighton collection, La fleur du rosier: Acadian Folksongs (Sydney, NS 1988); Anselme Chiasson's Tout le long de ces côtés: chansons folkloriques de l'Îles de la Madeleine (Mont St Hilaire, Que 1983), and his History and Acadian traditions of Cheticamp (St John's, Nfld 1986, a translation of the third edition of his French-language collection); and Suzie LeBlanc's Chansons des Îles de la Madeleine (Richelieu, Que 1980).
French-Canadian folk dance was the focus of detailed historical and choreographic studies by Simonne Voyer (La danse traditionelle dans l'est du Canada: quadrilles et cotillons, Quebec City 1986), Robert Sequin (La danse traditionnelle au Québec, Sillery, Que 1986) and Carmelle Bégin (Dance/Roots, Ritual and Romance, Hull, Que 1989). Closely related to the flourishing of dance studies were studies of instrumental dance musics, especially folk fiddling. Anthologies of transcriptions by Gibbons and Bégin are cited in Fiddling. The definition of regional styles was the focus of several studies (eg, Jim Hornby 'Fiddling tradition on Prince Edward Island,' MA thesis, Memorial U 1983). Some integrate dance and music (eg, Jean-Marie Verret French Canadian Dance Music, sound recording with transcription and annotation by Carmelle Bégin, 1983, Folkways). Others such as Colin Quigley's 'Creative processes in musical composition: French-Newfoundland fiddler Emile Benoit,' (PH D thesis, U of California 1987), Patrick Hutchison's 'You never think to lose the "Nyah"...: Retention and change in a fiddler's tradition,' Canadian Folklore/Folklore Canadien, 1985), David Ennis' 'Fiddling in Lanark County: a medium for the examination of acculturation in Canadian folk music,' (manuscript, 1986), and Virginia Garrison's 'Traditional and non-traditional teaching and learning practices in folk music: an ethnographic field study of Cape Breton,' (PH D thesis, U of Wisconsin 1985) focus on learning and transmission. Several video recordings convey rich contextual and performance practice data, eg, Four Strings Attached: Music of Lanark County (created and produced by David Ennis, 1986); The Fiddlers of James Bay (NFB, 1980); Atlantic Fiddling (CBC, 1980). Lederman's Métis collection, cited earlier, complements the list.
Contemporary 'chansonnier' activity was discussed in Robert Giroux's La chanson en question(s) (Montreal 1984) and Clement Normand's La Chanson Québécoise (Montreal 1981). See also Chansonniers.
Canadian country music research flourished during the decade. Neil Rosenberg's bluegrass research culminated in Bluegrass, A History (Urbana, Ill 1985). Robert Witmer's research includes a pedal-steel guitar dictionary (in preparation in 1991) and a chapter on country music in his 1982 monograph on Blood Indian music. Patrick B. O'Neill's '"Like a lone bawling calf": some musical traits of recent cowboy songs,' (Canadian Folklore/Folklore Canadien, 1985) analyzes musical style in a genre overlapping considerably with country music.Several studies examine the use of music in establishing regional or ethnic identity: Timothy Roger's 'The "strawberry roan" in Alberta: an expression of regional identity,' (Prairie Forum, vol 12, 1987), Neil Rosenberg's 'Ethnicity and class: black country musicians in the Maritimes,' (Journal of Canadian Studies, vol 23, no. 1-2, 1988), Michael Taft's Discovering Saskatchewan Folklore: Three Case Studies (Edmonton 1983), and John C. Lehr's 'As Canadian as possible... under the circumstances: regional myths of place and national identity in Canadian country music,' (borderlines vol 2, Spring 1985). (See also Bluegrass; Country Music)
Children's repertoires were examined in studies which explored transmission processes and issues of reception (eg, Jay Rahn's 'Stereotyped forms in English-Canadian children's songs: historical and pedagogical aspects,' CFMJ, vol 9, 1981), Jennifer Giles' 'Music consumption among English speaking teenage girls in the city of Montreal,' (MA thesis, Institute of Canadian Studies, Carleton University 1987) and Virginia Caputo ('Continuity and change in children's culture: a comparative study of children's song,' MA thesis, York University 1989).
Research On Other Ethnic Groups, 1980-90
Specific religious traditions were the focus of two studies of Mennonite music: Doreen Klassen's Singing Mennonite: Low German Songs among the Mennonites (Winnipeg 1989) and Wesley Berg's From Russia with Music: A Study of the Mennonite Choral Singing Tradition in Canada (Winnipeg 1985). Robert Klymasz continued earlier work with The Ukrainian Folk Ballad in Canada, with transcriptions by Kenneth Peacock (New York 1989). Jane Sugarman's award-winning article 'The nightingale and the partridge' (Ethnomusicology, vol 33, no. 2, 1989) was based, in part, on her field work among Albanian immigrants in Toronto. Other studies were published on Hungarian (Stephen Satory, 'Tanchaz in Toronto: a transplanted tradition,' CUMR, vol 8, 1987), Turkish (Leslie Hall, 'Turkish music culture in Toronto,' CFMJ, vol 10, 1982), and Ukrainian (M.J. Bandera, 'The western Canadian championships: Tsymbaly competitions at the Red Barn,' CFMJ, vol 11, 1983) immigrant cultures. Most monograph-length studies were theses, including works on Hungarian-Canadian traditions by George Demmer (MA thesis, Carelton U 1987), on Cantonese opera in Toronto by P. Stephen Li (MFA thesis, York University 1987), on Armenians in Toronto by Margaret Sarkissian (M MUS thesis, U of Illinois 1987), on Sephardic musics in Toronto and Montreal by Judith Cohen (PH D thesis, University of Montreal 1988), on Trinidadian steel bands in Toronto by Pauline Hasselbacher (MFA thesis, York University 1988), on Polish immigrant musics in Toronto (and Chicago) by Louise Wrazen (PH D thesis, University of Toronto 1988), on calypso in Toronto by Annemarie Gallaugher (MA thesis, York University 1991), and on 'Latin' music in Toronto by Lise Waxer (MFA thesis, York University 1991).
Remarkable lacunae in research on various immigrant groups still exist, for example, on the music of Italian-Canadians. (See also separate articles by country.)
Urban Ethnomusicology And Popular Music Studies
Urban ethnomusicology grew predictably in relation to city-based university programs: note that most of the theses cited in section 10 were urban studies. Much of the work on popular music has focussed on its marketing and the sociological ramifications thereof: Paul-Marcel Lemaire (Communication et culture, Quebec City 1989), Jody Berland ('Cultural re/percussions: the social production of music broadcasting in Canada,' PH D thesis, York University 1986; 'Radio space and industrial time: music formats, local narratives and technological mediation,' Popular music, vol 9, no. 2, 1990), Line Grenier (eg, 'Radio broadcasting in Canada: the case of transformat music,' Popular music, vol 9, no. 2, 1990) or John Shepherd (eg, 'Vers une critique sociologiquement fondée de la musique,' CUMR, vol 10, no. 2, 1990; with Jennifer Giles Davis, 'Theorizing music's affective power,' Ethnomusicology in Canada, ed Robert Witmer, CanMus Documents 5, Toronto 1990; see also citations above). In fact, market tools themselves may provide important information on Canada's musical life (eg, Ron Hall's The CHUM Chart Book, 1957-1983, Toronto, 1984) in the same way that song collections once did. Robert Wright's 'Dream, comfort, memory, despair: Canadian popular musicians and the dilemma of nationalism,' (Journal of Canadian Studies, vol 22, no. 4, 1987-8) exemplifies a historian's approach. Historical perspectives were deepened in studies such as Helen MacNamara and Jack Lomax' The Bands Canadians Danced To (Toronto 1973), and Edward Moogk'sRoll Back the Years.
See also Jazz.
Canadian Contributions To International Research
While this survey has emphasized ethnomusicological work on Canadian music, it should be noted that the majority of Canadian ethnomusicologists do part or all of their work extra-nationally or internationally. Many Canadian projects are linked to international ones, eg, in cases of transplanted musical traditions, in situations where global forces (such as the international music industry) are significant, or in studies where methodological and theoretical issues transcend national boundaries.
This international scope is recent. Colin McPhee was one of the few Canadians working outside the country in the first half of the century; his Music in Bali (New Haven 1966) remains a landmark in the discipline. In the 1960s and 1970s, Roxane C. Carlisle worked in the Sudan and Robert Witmer in Jamaica. Several renowned ethnomusicologists from outside Canada taught in Canadian universities during the same period: Polish-born Mieczyslaw Kolinski (University of Toronto) who developed unique methods for cross-cultural analysis which stimulated considerable debate (see, eg, the published exchange between Kolinski and Marcia Herndon in Ethnomusicology, 1974-7); Latin Americanist Charles Boilès (University of Montreal) and Norma McLeod (University of Ottawa) whose work on cross-cultural analytical method and the ethnography of performance remain influential in the discipline, Timothy Rice (University of Toronto),and Stephen Blum (York University). French-born semiotician J.-J. Nattiez began teaching in the University of Montreal in 1970.
African studies in Canada have been numerically sparse. A number of performers acquired training in Ghanaian music (eg, Nexus, Flaming Dono Drummers). Several graduate theses were completed or were in process in 1991 (eg, Cynthia Gyimah 'The Homowo Festival of the Ga Mashi People of Accra,' MFA thesis, York University 1985; Jeffrey Freedman 'African stylistic features in Zairean pop music,' PH D thesis, University of Montreal in progress in 1991). A growing number of scholars turned, in the 1980s, to African-American traditions. York University produced a concentration of monographs on blues and jazz, with a focus on individual repertoires, improvisational technique, and style: Howard Spring 'The improvisational style of Charlie Christian,' (MFA thesis, York University 1980); Rob Bowman 'The question of improvisation and head arrangement in King Oliver's Creole Jazz Band,' MFA thesis, York University 1982; Alan Henderson 'Improvisation in the recorded works of Coleman Hawkins, 1932-34,' MFA thesis, York University 1983; Matthew Vander Woude 'The recorded music of Muddy Waters, 1941-1956: a repertory analysis and anthology of song texts,' MFA thesis, York University 1986; Robert van der Bliek, 'Wes Montgomery: a study of coherence in jazz improvisation,' MFA thesis, York University 1987. Other studies have integrated contextual elements, especially place and venue: eg, William W. Westcott, 'City vaudeville classic blues: locale and venue in early blues,' (Ethnomusicology in Canada, ed Robert Witmer). Caribbean studies have flourished in recent years, with much work on the French Antilles emanating from the University of Montreal and the University of Ottawa.
Current theoretical issues are well represented in this group. The complex issues of sub-cultural identities, issues of representation, and issues of political/economic control have been addressed in a number of popular music studies: by Jocelyne Guilbault (eg, Zouk: A History and Interpretation of a Caribbean Popular Music, in press in 1991) on music of the French Antilles and its international diffusion; by Robert Witmer (eg, '"Local" and "foreign" in the popular music culture of Kingston, Jamaica, before ska, rock steady, and reggae,' Latin American Music Review, vol 8, no. 2, 1987) on Jamaican reggae; and by James Robbins (eg, 'Practical and abstract taxonomy in Cuban music,' Ethnomusicology, vol 33, no. 3, 1989) on the social and political structures for music in Cuba. Performance theory (as developed by Schechner and Turner) has influenced the work of De Shane (eg, 'Dong de Road', International Conference on Dance Research, Mexico 1987). Monique DesRoches' work in Martinique has been variously oriented toward semiology, (eg,'Semiotic analysis and the music of Tamil religious ceremonies in Martinique,' Three Musical Analyses, ed J-J. Nattiez, Toronto 1982) and other models of symbolic analysis (eg, 'Créolisation musicale: un processus d'adaptation aux Antilles françaises,' Revue canadienne des études latino-americaines et caribbienne, in press in 1991).
Studies of European musics have concentrated on the Balkans and Eastern Europe. Irene Markoff's 'Two-part singing from the Razlog district of southwestern Bulgaria,' (Yearbook of the International Folk Music Council, vol 7, 1975) and Timothy Rice's 'Aspects of Bulgarian musical thought,' (ibid, vol 12, 1980) respectively present etic and emic categories as analytical constructs. Also noteworthy is recent work by Maria Paula Survilla on Byelorussian music and on rock music in the Soviet context ('From assertion to aesthetics: Byelorussia as subject in poetic and musical texts,' Zapisy, vol 19, 1990; 'Byelorussian rock music,' Rock Music in the Soviet Union, ed Pedro Ramet, in preparation in 1991).
George Sawa, an Egyptian-born qanun player and scholar of medieval Arabic music, produced meticulous publications on early musico-theoretical texts, eg, Music Performance Practice in the Early 'Abbasid era 132-320A.H./750-932A.D. (Toronto 1989). Sawa has provided the stimulus for North African and Mid-Eastern musical studies at the University of Toronto. Suzanne Meyers Sawa has researched the musical roles of Arabic women both in medieval and contemporary periods. Leslie Hall has contributed to knowledge of Turkish classical genres ('The Turkish fasil: selected repertoire,' PH D thesis, University of Toronto 1989) and Irene Markoff has written on modal practice, popular music genres, and other issues in Turkish music (eg, 'Musical theory, performance and the contemporary bağlama specialist in Turkey,' PH D thesis, U of Washington 1986).
Asian music studies have been most concentrated in Western Canada, especially at the University of British Columbia where Elliot Weisgarber cultivated an interest in the music of Japan beginning in the 1960s and where, more recently, Alan Thrasher's program development and his own (generally analytical) studies (eg, 'The melodic structure of "jiangnam sizhu",' Ethnomusicology, vol 29, no. 2, 1985) have stimulated Chinese research. Pakistani and Indian music studies have flourished in several centres. In Alberta, the work of Regula Qureshi on Sufism and especially qawwali has been of theoretical importance within ethnomusicology for its integration of sound analysis with contextual data and for its high standards of meticulous documentation. Her major work is Sufi Music of India and Pakistan: Sound, Context, and Meaning in Qawwali (New York 1986). North Indian classical traditions of several different schools have been the focus of work by James Hamilton (Sitar Music in Calcutta, Calgary 1989) and James Kippen (Tabla of Lucknow: A Cultural Analysis of a Musical Tradition, Cambridge, Eng 1988). Renowned mridangam virtuoso Trichy Sankaran has contributed to South Indian scholarship with several studies of rhythmic process. Indonesian music has been studied and performed in several centres (see Jon Siddal, José Evangelista).
Institutions And Training
Within Canadian universities, the earliest courses in which folk music occupied a prominent place probably were those offered at Laval University in the summer of 1939 with the participation of Marius Barbeau, Luc Lacourcière, and Félix-Antoine Savard. Five years later, Laval established a chair of folklore, occupied 1944-77 by Lacourcière. Ida Halpern offered ethnomusicology courses at the University of British Columbia, beginning in 1964, and Mieczyslaw Kolinski initiated the subject at the University of Toronto in 1966. In her 1972 survey of curricula ('The current ethnomusicology curriculum in Canadian universities,' Ethnomusicology, vol 16, no. 3, 1972), Roxane C. Carlisle noted 'major' programs at six universities and 'minor' programmes at twelve others. Sixteen years later, the survey compiled by Robert Witmer and George Sawa - of Ontario universities only - listed 97 courses with some ethnomusicological content at 12 of the 18 universities in the province, although a lacunae of courses on non-Western musics was still noted (see Ethnomusicology in Canada, ed Robert Witmer, p 351-6).
Non-Western performance studies were still only occasionally available in 1991. Individual study or ensembles exist, for example, at the University of British Columbia, University of Alberta, University of Toronto, Queen's University, York University, and the University of Montreal. Popular music studies are concentrated at Memorial U, Carleton University, University of Ottawa, Trent University, and York University. Professional training in ethnomusicology flourished in universities as evidenced by the more than 100 participants in the First Conference on Ethnomusicology in Canada held in Toronto in 1988 (see Witmer, ed, ). By 1989 graduate training was available at eight Canadian universities according to a survey published by the Society for Ethnomusicology. Programs are identified in articles for specific universities.
Folk music archives and research centres have been maintained at Laval University, University of Moncton, and Laurentian University for French-language materials; at St Francis Xavier for Scots-Gaelic music; and at Memorial U for Newfoundland folklore. Several other programs, perhaps especially York University, have extensive field collections made mainly by their faculty and graduate students.
Several other types of institutions specifically designed to promote cultural activity within particular communities or regions established or maintained successful research programmes in the 1980s. A series of Native Cultural Centres were established in several provinces, each serving as a source of support for community-based arts projects and most generating important publications for the promotion of Native language and culture (see Native North Americans in Canada). Both provincially- and regionally-based institutes (eg, the Multicultural History Association of Ontario or the Institut québécois de recherche sur la culture) and community centres, especially in urban areas, served various constituencies interested in ethnomusicological research (see also separate articles by country).