Biography | The Canadian Encyclopedia



Biographies are of importance not only because they document careers and achievements but also because they bring to the public consciousness many composers and performers who otherwise would remain mere names attached to scores, recordings, and concert programs.


Biographies are of importance not only because they document careers and achievements but also because they bring to the public consciousness many composers and performers who otherwise would remain mere names attached to scores, recordings, and concert programs. No matter how logical the claim that 'only the music matters,' the desire to know public figures as people seems to be ingrained deeply in the human psyche. One might say that the public's awareness of a Beethoven, a Berlioz, a Liszt, or a Wagner owes almost as much to the facts and legends spread by their biographers as to knowledge of their music. The imagination is kindled by legends (keeping in mind that truth usually is more fascinating than fiction), and those legends are given shape by biographers.

That the most successful Canadian musicians are not better known may be attributed in part to the dearth of biographical writing about them; and what there is, moreover (see list below) has not always chosen its subjects from among the top echelons. In 1979, when the manuscript of the first edition of EMC was completed, there still were no major treatments of Marius Barbeau, Claude Champagne, Guillaume Couture, Lynnwood Farnam, Sir Ernest MacMillan, A.S. Vogt, or Healey Willan, but at least Emma Albani, Glenn Gould, Edward Johnson, Calixa Lavallée, and Wilfrid Pelletier had received due biographical attention. By 1990 the above-noted figures (with the exception of Willan) still had not received biographical treatment, although the number of published biographies and memoirs had risen greatly. By far the most attention had been given to Glenn Gould after his premature death in 1982. There were collections of essays by and about him, volumes of interviews, conference proceedings, written in French and English and translated into German, Japanese and other languages. Only the strictly biographical works on Gould are listed below.

Canadian Musicians 1874-1967

The following list of biographical and autobiographical writings of Canadian musicians is arranged chronologically by publication date and does not include article-length studies, such as those in the Montreal periodical Qui?:

Legendre, Napoléon. Albani/Emma Lajeunesse (Quebec City). An account of the early years of the singer, then 27 years old

Jehin-Prume, Jules. Une Vie d'artiste (Montreal). The life of Frantz Jehin-Prume by his son

Albani, Emma. Forty Years of Song (London, Toronto). Memoirs of the famous singer. Translated into French and annotated by Gilles Potvin as Mémoires d'Emma Albani (Montreal 1972) with added chronology, discography, and bibliography

Mercier, François-Xavier. Souvenirs de ma carrière artistique (Quebec City); reissued as 'Gerbe de Souvenirs' in his book Technique de musique vocale (Quebec City 1928). Memoirs of the Quebec operatic tenor and teacher

Clarke, Herbert Lincoln. How I Became a Cornetist (St Louis). Autobiographical sketch of the US virtuoso, who spent significant portions of his life in Canada

Lapierre, Eugène. Calixa Lavallée (Montreal, rev and enlarged 1950, and 1966). The first major study of a Canadian musician; based on extensive though incomplete research

Charbonneau, Hélène. L'Albani, sa carrière artistique et triomphale (Montreal). A fairly well researched book but far from being a definitive biography

Gour, Romain. La Palme-Issaurel (Montreal). A critical biography of the soprano and of her husband, a tenor and renowned teacher

Blanchet, Louis-J.-N. Une vie illustrée de Calixa Lavallée (Montreal)

Cook, Lyn. The Little Magic Fiddler (Toronto). The career of the young Donna Grescoe

Leclerc, Félix. Moi, mes souliers (Montreal, Paris). Autobiography of the chansonnier; with chronology, bibliography, and critical opinions

McCarthy, Pearl. Leo Smith, A Biographical Sketch (Toronto). A portrait rather than a researched piece

Marcoux, Albertine. Musicien et Paysan, fatal destin d'un agriculteur-musicien (Quebec City). The story of Joseph-Désiré Marcoux, a late-19th-century small town Quebec band musician

McDowell, Louise. Past and Present, A Canadian Musician's Reminiscences (Kirkland Lake). Memoirs of a piano teacher, with fascinating accounts of her student days at the TCM and in Leipzig

Benoît, Réal. La Bolduc (Montreal). Life story of the French-Canadian pop star of the 1930s

Carter, Wilf. The Yodelling Cowboy (Toronto). Autobiography

Laframboise, Philippe. Rolande Désormeaux: sa vie: sa carrière: son souvenir (Montreal)

Brousseau, Serge. Le Beau Roman d'amour de Rolande Désormeaux (Montreal). Life story of a pop singer who died in 1963

Herndon, Booton. The Sweetest Music This Side of Heaven (Toronto, New York, London). The Lombardo family story, with emphasis on Guy

French, Maida Parlow. Kathleen Parlow: A Portrait (Toronto). By the virtuoso's cousin; a description rather than an analysis of the career

Non-Canadian Musicians

Among biographies by Canadians of foreign musicians are:

Chambers, Jack. Milestones I: The Music and Times of Miles Davis to 1960 (Toronto 1983)

- Milestones II: The Music and Times of Miles Davis since 1960 (Toronto 1985)

Goddard, Peter. Frank Sinatra (Don Mills, Toronto 1973)

Laframboise, Philippe. Dieu chez Piaf: essai (Boucherville, Que 1983)

Littlehales, Lillian [May]. Pablo Casals (London, New York 1929 rev 1949). The first Casals biography

Miller, Mark. Coal Blues: Charlie Parker in Canada 1953 (London, Ont 1989)

Ondaatje, Michael. Coming through Slaughter (Toronto 1976). An account of the life of the legendary New Orleans jazzman Buddy Bolden

Ouellette, Fernand. Edgard Varèse (Paris 1966, rev 1989), transl Derek Coltman (New York 1968)

Pinsonneault, Bernard. Nicolas Medtner, pianiste, compositeur (1879-1951) (Montreal 1956)

Robinson, Paul. Karajan (Toronto 1976). The Art of the Conductor series, transl German - Herbert von Karajan: Grosse Dirigenten: ihr Leben und Wirken mit 10 Abbildungen auf Kunstdrucktafeln (Zurich, Stuttgart, Vienna 1981)

- Stokowski (Toronto 1977)

- Solti (Toronto 1979). Transl German, (Zurich, Stuttgart, Vienna 1983)

- Bernstein (New York 1982)

Sachs, Harvey. Toscanini (London 1978) French transl by W.C. Cuvillier and G. Zeisel (Paris 1980)

- Virtuoso (London 1982). The life and art of Paganini, Liszt, Rubinstein, Paderewski, Kreisler, Casals, Landowska, Horowitz, Gould

Schabas, Ezra. Theodore Thomas: America's Conductor and Builder of Orchestras 1835-1905 (Urbana, Chicago 1989)

Schafer, R. Murray. E.T.A. Hoffmann and His Music (Toronto 1975)

Walker, Alan ed. Franz Liszt: The Man and His Music (London, New York 1970)

- Franz Liszt: The Virtuoso Years 1811-1847 (New York 1983, rev 1987)

- ed Robert Schumann: The Man and His Music (London, New York 1972)

-. Franz Liszt: The Weimar Years 1848-1861 (London, New York 1989

Various Toronto journalists, principally Peter Goddard, have collaborated with the photographer Philip Kamin on a series of 'instant books' documenting international tours by major pop performers of the 1980s - eg, David Bowie, the Rolling Stones, and The Who.

Unpublished works include Luigi von Kunits 'The Hero as Musician' (1913) about Beethoven, and James McPherson's biography of Ernestine Schumann-Heink.

See also Dictionaries.

Canadian Musicians 1968-1976

Robitaille, Aline. Gilles Vigneault (Montreal). French-language account of the career of the chansonnier

Sylvain, Jean-Paul. Félix Leclerc ou mes 25 années dans l'intimité de Félix Leclerc par Andrée Leclerc (Montreal). The chansonnier seen through the eyes of his former wife

Berimont, Luc. Félix Leclerc (Montreal, Paris). With a selection of songs, a discography, a bibliography, and photographs

Matti, Jacques. Michèle Richard raconte Michèle Richard (Montreal). Life of the Quebec pop star as told by herself; photographs and an interview

Rioux, Lucien. Gilles Vigneault (Paris). Pocket-size book in the collection 'Poètes d'aujourd'hui'

Sellick, Lester B. Canada's Don Messer (Kentville, NS). Career of the country musician

Haendel, Ida. Woman with Violin (London). Autobiography written in mid-career. Few references to Canada

Boucher, Jacqueline. Jean-Pierre Ferland jaune ou... (Ottawa). Short, illustrated book about the chansonnier

L'Herbier, Benoît. Charlebois, qui es-tu (Montreal). An illustrated book about the pop star

The Welsman Memoranda (Toronto). Researched by Mary E. Jolliffe, this compilation of facts and press notices deals largely with Frank S. Welsman as the first conductor of the TSO.

Fournier, Roger. Gilles Vigneault, mon ami (Montreal). An intimate study by the close friend and novelist

Pelletier, Wilfrid. Une Symphonie inachevée... (Montreal). The conductor's detailed autobiography

Rioux, Lucien. Robert Charlebois (Paris). Selection of songs, with discography and articles; in the collection 'Chansons d'aujourd'hui'

Calvet, Louis-Jean. Pauline Julien (Paris). Writings about the Quebec singer; with discography and photographs

Gagné, Marc. Propos de Gilles Vigneault (Montreal). A revealing book in question-and-answer form

Gagnon, Claude. Robert Charlebois déchiffré (Montreal). Analytical study of the chansonnier

Richard, Ti-Blanc. Ti-Blanc super-violoneux (Montreal). Written in collaboration with Jean-Paul Sylvain and Jean Laurac; emphasis on anecdotes

Robidoux, Fernand. Si ma chanson... (Montreal)

Brotman, Ruth C. Pauline Donalda (Montreal). Well-documented account of the prima donna's career and brief history of the Opera Guild of Montreal, which she founded

Cherney, Brian. Harry Somers (Toronto). No. 1 in CMCentre's Canadian Composers series; the first Canadian biography to include an analysis of compositions

Creighton, Helen. A Life in Folklore (Toronto). The first book of memoirs written by a Canadian folksong collector

Duncan, Chester. Wanna Fight, Kid (Winnipeg). Memoirs and essays of the musician, English professor, and critic; based on broadcast scripts

LeSerge, Diane. Willie Lamothe, trente ans de Showbusiness (Montreal). The career of the Quebec country singer

Lombardo, Guy, with Jack Altschul. Auld Acquaintance (New York). Memories of his family and friends by the bandleader

Racicot, H. et al. Diane Dufresne (Montreal). Well-illustrated, large-size book on the singer, with discography; in the collection 'Les Gens de mon pays'

Fleischer, Leonore. Joni Mitchell (New York). Mid-career life story of the singer-songwriter by a US journalist

Hone, François. La Fascinante Histoire de nos familles - Jules Hone-Antoine Gérin-Lajoie (Montreal). Private edn. A compilation of documents and notes on the two families, including the Belgian-born violinist Jules Hone

Mercer, Ruby. The Tenor of His Time (Toronto). Life of Edward Johnson

Rudel-Tessier, J. André Mathieu, un génie (Montreal). A hastily written and incompletely documented biography of the composer, pianist, and child prodigy

Canadian Musicians 1977-1982

Adaskin, Harry. A Fiddler's World: Memoirs to 1938 (Vancouver). Devoted in equal parts to autobiography, reflections, and anecdotes. See also 1982.

Dor, Georges. Si tu savais.... (Montreal, Brussels)

Gagné, Marc. Gilles Vigneault (Quebec City). A 1000-page compilation of material on the Quebec chansonnier, including descriptive and critical bibliography, discography, filmography, iconography and chronology

Brousseau, Pierre. Une étoile est née... Nicole Martin (Montreal)

McCullagh, Harold. The Man Who Made New Brunswick Sing (St Stephen, NB). The story of David Thomson, provincial supervisor of school music 1949-65

Payzant, Geoffrey. Glenn Gould: Music and Mind (Toronto). A philosophic approach to the art of this Canadian artist; with discography. Rev edn published 1984 (Toronto). French edn Glenn Gould: un homme du futur (Paris, 1983); also transl into Finnish (Helsinki, 1988)

Duflechou, Carole. Neil Young (New York). Singer-songwriter's story by a US author

Ravel, Ginette. Je vis mon alcoolisme (Montreal). Autobiography of a Montreal pop singer and the story of her addiction to alcohol and subsequent recovery

André Gagnon (Montreal). Collected views and sayings; compiled by Lucie Rozon

Wilson, John. A Professional Piper in Peace and War (Toronto). Recollections of a Scottish-Canadian piper

Cline, Beverly Fink. The Lombardo Story (Don Mills, Ont)

Gabiou, Alfrieda. Gordon Lightfoot (Toronto). Subtitled 'The first biography of the legendary singer/songwriter'

Hamilton, Lois. His Singing Seven: Their Story (Toronto). Story of a touring family of gospel singers

Huot, Cécile. Entretiens avec Omer Létourneau (Montreal). Memoirs of Létourneau, with bibliography, list of works, notes on Quebec musical organizations (AMQ, Quebec SO, choirs in Quebec City area, etc)

Ravel, Ginette. Vivre 24 heures à la fois (Montreal)

De Preist, James. Au fur et à mesure (St-Lambert, Que)

Robi, Alys. Ma Carrière et ma vie (Montreal)

Savaria, Georges. Hors De Portée (Mandeville, Que). Story of the Prix d'Europe winner's years in France and his imprisonment and escape during World War II

Goulet, Charles. Sur la scène et dans la coulisse (Quebec City)

Henig, Harry, and Thompson, Madeline. Elusive Summit: The Biography of Sheila Henig (Toronto)

Kenney, Mart. Mart Kenney and his Western Gentlemen (Saskatoon)

Loyonnet, Paul. Paradoxes sur le pianiste (Montreal)

Livingstone, David. Anne Murray: The Story So Far (New York)

Mackenzie, Nadine. The Light in the Night: the Life of Mary Munn (Calgary); French edn La lumière dans le nuit: la vie de Mary Munn (Sherbrooke, Que 1984)

Adaskin, Harry. A Fiddler's Choice: Memoirs 1938-1980 (Vancouver)

Harrigan, Brian. Rush (London, New York, Sydney, Cologne)

Le Blanc, Alonzo. Arthur Le Blanc Acadien: violonist-virtuose (Dieppe, NB)

Leeper, Muriel. The Gustin Influence (Saskatoon)

Lotfi Mansouri: An Operatic Life (Toronto). As told to Aviva Layton.

Louvain, Michel. Michel Louvain: La chanson, c'est ma vie (St-Lambert, Que)

Robert, Gill. Gérard Barbeau: une vie inachevée (Montreal)

Rogan, Johnny. Neil Young: The Definitive Story of his Musical Career (London, New York)

Russell, Kelly. Rufus Guinchard: the Man and his Music (St John's)

Surette, Paul. Benoît Poirier: la vie d'un musicien acadien 1882 à 1965 Imprimerie Acadienne, published by La Société Culturelle Ti-Pa 1982

Canadian Musicians 1983-87

Adams, Stephen. R. Murray Schafer (Toronto). No.4 in the CMCentre's Canadian Composers series

Bachand, Danielle and Claudine. René et Nathalie Simard (Montreal)

Boulanger, André. Au jardin de mes souvenirs/Marcel Martel: propos recueillis et racontes (Boucherville, Que)

Clarke, F.R.C. Healey Willan: Life and Music (Toronto)

Céline Dion: La Naissance d'une étoile (Montreal). Autobiography

Deslauriers, Nicole. Si mon père était conté... (Montreal). About the author's father, Jean Deslauriers

Eastman, Sheila and McGee, Timothy J. Barbara Pentland (Toronto). No.3 in the CMCentre's Canadian Composers series

Lemay, Jerome. Les Jérolas (Montreal)

Leyrac, Monique. Mon enfance à Rosemont (Montreal)

Maheux, Renée. Raoul Jobin (Paris)

Richard, Michéle. Ti-Blanc: mon ami, mon père (Montreal)

Peyton, Amy Louise. Nightingale of the North (St John's). Story of the singer Marie Toulinguet

Woodford, Paul. Charles Hutton (St John's). The life of 'Newfoundland's greatest musician and dramatist'

Beauvarlet, Geneviève. Diane Dufresne (Paris)

Gervais, Raymond and Pontbriand, Chantal. Henri Pontbriand, ténor canadien (London, Ont)

Gett, Steve. Rush: Success Under Pressure (Port Chester, NY)

Mimi Hétu: recit autobiographique (Montreal)

Horricks, Raymond. Svengali, or, the Orchestra called Gil Evans (Tunbridge Wells, Eng, New York)

Lemieux, Marie. Paul Letondal: musicien aveugle (Montreal)

MacDonald, Cheryl. Emma Albani: Victorian Diva (Toronto)

Martel, Renée. Renaissance (Montreal). Autobiography

Palmer, Richard. Oscar Peterson (Tunbridge Wells, England, New York). French edn Paris, 1986

Racine, Gaëtan. Diane Dufresne (Montreal)

Ravel, Ginette. Entre l'amour et l'amitié (Montreal)

Roger, Jen. Showtime: pour le meilleur et pour le pire (Montreal). Autobiography Pop singer reminisces

Ginette Reno: l'histoire d'une superstar: sa biographie illustrée (Montreal)

Solway, Maurice. Recollections of a Violinist (Oakville, Ont). Autobiography

Woodford, Paul G. 'Nish' Rumboldt: The Life and Contributions of Ignatius Rumboldt to Music in Newfoundland (St John's)

Young, Scott. Neil and Me (Toronto). Journalist writes of his rock star son

Eckhardt, Ferdinand, with Bowler, Gerald (ed). Music from Within: A Biography of the Composer S. C. Eckhardt-Gramatté (Winnipeg)

Finch, J. David, ed. My Orchestra and Other Adventures: The Memoirs of Boyd Neel (Toronto)

Hahn, Robert H. None of the Roads Were Paved (Markham, Ont). Memoirs

Hunter, Tommy. Tommy Hunter: My Story (Toronto). Written with Liane Heller

Gerry d'Offenbach: la voix que j'ai (Verchère, Que)

Russell, Anna. I'm Not Making This Up, You Know: The Autobiography of the Queen of Musical Parody (Toronto)

Bail Milot, Louise. Jean Papineau-Couture: la vie, la carrière et l'oeuvre (La Salle, Que). No. 2 in the CMCentre's Canadian Composers series

Forrester, Maureen, with McDonald, Marci. Out of Character: A Memoir (Toronto). Autobiography; French edn Maureen Forrester: au-delà du personnage: un récit (Montreal)

Lefebvre, Marie-Thérèse. Serge Garant et la révolution musicale au Québec (Montreal). Biography, and also Garant's writings 1954-84

Lévesque, Raymond. D'Ailleurs et d'ici (Montreal)

Nicholson, Georges. Charles Dutoit, le maître de l'orchestre (Montreal)

Robertson, Sandy. Bryan Adams (London)

Watmough, David. The Unlikely Pioneer: Building Opera from the Pacific through the Prairies (Oakville, Ont). Irving Guttman's career in opera

Bertin, Jacques. Félix Leclerc: le roi heureux (Paris)

Côté, Jean. Patrick Norman: quand on est en amour (Montreal)

Matheis, Wera. Glenn Gould: der Unheilige am Klavier (Munich)

McCarthy, Gary B. Hank Rivers: Henry la Rivière: Memories: 50 Years of a Great Legend (Ottawa)

O'Connell, Sheldon J. Dick Todd: King of the Jukebox (Providence, RI)

Vac, Bernard. Jean C. Lallemand raconte (Verdun, Que)

Canadian Musicians 1988-91

Banasiewicz, Bill. Rush: Visions: The Official Biography (London, New York, Sydney, Cologne)

Collins, Maynard. Lightfoot: If You Could Read His Mind (Toronto)

Godbout, Jacques. Plamondon: un coeur de rockeur (Montreal)

Hamilton, Lois. His Singing Seven: Chapter 2 (Etobicoke, Ont)

Lazarevich, Gordana. The Musical World of Frances James and Murray Adaskin (Toronto)

Lees, Gene. Oscar Peterson: The Will to Swing (Toronto)

Maheu, Renée. Pierrette Alarie: Léopold Simoneau: deux voix, un art (Montreal)

Mellor, John. Music in the Park: G.F. Thiele: Father of Canadian Band Music (Waterloo, Ont)

Rasky, Harry. Stratas: An Affectionate Tribute (Toronto, New York)

Talks with Jackie Washington (Hamilton, Ont). Memoirs prepared by James Strecker

Friedrich, Otto. Glenn Gould: A Life and Variations (Toronto, New York)

Hawkins, Ronnie and Goddard, Peter. Ronnie Hawkins: Last of the Good Old Boys (Toronto) 1989

Kresz, Mária and Király, Péter. The Violinist and the Pianist Géza de Kresz and Norah Drewett: Their Life and Music on Two Continents.(Toronto)

O'Hara, Jane. Bryan Adams (Markham, Ont)

Portelli, Rose-Marie. Fabienne Thibeault (Paris)

Young, Gayle. The Sackbut Blues: Hugh Le Caine, Pioneer in Electronic Music (Ottawa); French edn Blues pour saquebout

Légaré, Jean-Pierre. Légaré J'ai bien connu notre père! (Montreal). Ovila Legaré: a son's memories

Oja, Carol J. Colin McPhee: Composer in Two Worlds (Washington, DC)

Mercer, Ruby. The Quilicos: Louis, Gino, Lina (Toronto)

There also are biographies and memoirs treating persons marginally involved in music or domiciled only briefly in Canada - Floyd Chalmers, Leonard Cohen, Marie Dressler, Louis Jolliet, Jean Lallemand, Beatrice Lillie, John Medley, Eva Rose York, and others.

Among musicians who have left unpublished autobiographical sketches are Gustave Smith and Sir Ernest MacMillan. An account of Ernest Dainty's life was written by his widow, Gertrude Dainty. A study of Lynnwood Farnam was completed by H. William Hawke. Other such manuscripts may be assumed to exist.

Theses have been written about Violet Archer, Claude Champagne, Eva Gauthier, S.C. Eckhardt-Gramatté, Wilfrid Pelletier, Rodolphe Mathieu, Healey Willan, and others. Most deal with the works rather than the lives of their subjects.

Volumes uniting biographical sketches of several musicians range in treatment from thumbnail portraits to fairly substantial discussions. Examples of the two extremes are Claude Gingras'Musiciennes de chez nous (Montreal 1955) which deals with 19 women musicians on 93 pages of text and Peter Such's Soundprints (Toronto 1972), which gives six composers (Beckwith, Beecroft, Buczynski, Schafer, Somers, and Weinzweig) an average of 24 pages each. James McPherson has written a book of short biographies of 100 Canadian singers, past and present (unpublished 1990). Other works of this type are Louise G. McCready's Famous Musicians (Toronto 1957), including Edward Johnson, Sir Ernest MacMillan, Wilfrid Pelletier, and Healey Willan; Augustus Bridle'sSons of Canada (Toronto 1916), which includes biographic pieces on Couture, Torrington, and Vogt; Christian Larsen's Chansonniers du Québec (Montreal 1964); Michèle Maillé's Blow up des grands de la chanson au Québec (Montreal 1969); Ritchie Yorke's Axes, Chops and Hot Licks (Edmonton 1971); Gabriel Labbé's Les Pionniers du disque folklorique québécois 1920-1950 (Montreal 1977); and Allister MacGillivray'sThe Cape Breton Fiddler (Sydney, NS 1981). Ian Bradley's Twentieth Century Canadian Composers (vol I 1977, vol II 1982, Agincourt, Ont) treats the life and works of tenor composers in each volume. William Garry Dobinson's The Nine Men of Walmer Road: A Music History of Walmer Road Baptist Church, Toronto [1908-80] includes material on George Coutts, Harold G. Williams, Charles Peaker and others (typescript 1980). Mark Miller'sJazz in Canada: Fourteen Lives (Toronto 1982) treats Teddy and Trump Davidson, Paul and P.J. Perry, Chris Gage, Herbie Spanier, Wray Downes, Larry Dubin, Nelson Symonds, Guy Nadon, Claude Ranger, Sonny Greenwich, Brian Barley and Ron Park; and his Boogie, Pete & the Senator (Toronto 1987) deals with 40 jazz figures of the 1980s. Other collective biographies are Bill Guest's Canadian Fiddlers (Hantsport, NS 1985); Ellen Schwartz's Born a Woman: Seven Canadian Women Singer-Songwriters (Winla, BC 1988), with chapters on Heather Bishop, Ferron, Marie-Lynn Hammond, Connie Kaldor, Rita MacNeil, Lucie Blue Tremblay, Sylvia Tyson; Ulla Colgrass' For the Love of Music (Toronto 1988), based on interviews with Canadian and non-Canadian musicians; Helen Dahlstrom'sCanadian Composers: Mini Biographies (Rossland, BC 1989); and Marco Adria's Music of Our Time: Eight Canadian Singer-Songwriters (Toronto 1990).