Musicology may be described as the pursuit of musical knowledge and insight by accurate, objective, and critical methods of fact-finding, analysis, and interpretation. While musical scholarship has existed in most highly developed cultures of the past, the principles and techniques used in the 20th century were formulated only in the late 19th and have remained in a process of refinement and transformation. Musicology has known two main approaches: the historical (the history of western art music) and the systematic (the study of universal principles underlying the vocabulary of music - scales, rhythms, melodies, etc - and of acoustics, aesthetics, psychology, sociology, and other disciplines in their relationship to music). This division is no longer accepted by some practitioners. Stanley Fogel's statement about the academic study of literature may well apply to music: 'What we have come to accept as the traditional division of English departments into historical periods, major figures and genres (poems, plays, novels), with their attendant faculty specialists, may not be the best framework for the study of a cultural product such as literature' (Books in Canada, vol 20, May 1991).
Musicology is complemented by ethnomusicology, traditionally defined as the study of folk music and of non-western art music, but increasingly seen as an anthropological approach to music of any kind. It has become harder to define where musicology with its traditionally Eurocentric approach ends and ethnomusicology with its all-embracing outlook begins. The time may come when a differentiation between the two fields will have lost any meaning.
Meanwhile the subject areas and methods of investigation of musicology have begun to shift, merge or fade, as scholars seek to comprehend changes in the world at large. Changing class and power structures, vast migrations of people from continent to continent, new technologies of dissemination, the levelling influence of commercial marketing and, last but not least, internal musical developments, all have blurred or realigned the borders between cultivated and vernacular, western and non-western, homegrown and international music. The very terminologies are in flux. More and more, music is understood in its intimate connections with human society at large, its cultural traditions, specific locations, dissemination technologies, commercial interests, and economic situations.
An academic degree or position, though advantageous, is not essential in the accomplishment of musicological work, and many Canadians whose specialty is performance or composition have applied expert skill in the interpretation and editing of scores in obsolete notations or in the study of exotic tonal systems. However, in Canada at least, the label musicologist is often applied too freely to broadcaster-commentators, journalists, and other popularizers, in fact to any well-read musician or music lover. Perhaps the mark of the model musicologist is the possession of the techniques to do original research and the ability to generalize, ie, to place individual facts and observations into larger patterns of relationships and historical dynamics.
Canada as Subject Matter for Musicological Study
The Budding of Historical Scholarship
Though the scholarly investigation of music in Canada entered its formative stage only in the third quarter of the 20th century, much of the work previously done by chroniclers, journalists, and general historians deserves recognition. Its importance lies in the fact that it transmits much information, often based on personal observation, that would be lost otherwise; its weakness lies in the lack of access to adequate documentation and the resulting narrow chronological and geographical perspective and frequent inaccuracy of name spellings and dates.
As in Brazil and other new-world countries, the musical curiosity of the earliest European chroniclers in Canada - Marc Lescarbot and several of the 17th-century missionaries - was captured by the unfamiliar music of the natives rather than the musical life among the colonists, which was so much like that of dozens of small French or English towns. Later European visitors - the Baron de Lahontan in his New Voyages to North-America (English edn 1703), Pehr Kalm in Travels in North America (English edn 1770), or the duc de La Rochefoucauld-Liancourt in his Travels through the United States of America, the Country of the Iroquois, and Upper Canada... (London 1799) - likewise recorded unaccustomed musical impressions, whether the music of the Indians or the singing of the voyageurs.
The earliest known attempts at a historical record of musical life, one in English and one in French, date back only to 1878 and 1881-2 respectively. In the Toronto Mail of 21 Dec 1878 an anonymous writer presented 'Music in Toronto: reminiscences of the last half century,' which is rich in factual detail; and in the periodical L'Album musical of Montreal, Gustave Smith wrote a series of 12 articles, 'Du mouvement musical en Canada,' concerned with the quality rather than the facts of musical life in the 25 years of his Canadian experience. At the same time appeared a historical account of one musical society, Historique de la Société musicale Sainte-Cécile de Québec (Quebec City 1881). These publications set a pattern for many to follow in the next 50 years, among them F.E. Dixon's 'Music in Toronto, as it was in the days that are gone forever' in the Daily Mail and Empire, 7 Nov 1896; Mgr Henri Têtu's series of 'Impressions musicales' in Action Sociale (13 Mar 1915, etc); Herbert Kent's 'Musical chronicles of early times' in the Victoria Daily Times (7, 14, 21, 28 Dec 1918); and Nazaire LeVasseur's 'Musique et musiciens à Québec,' in monthly instalments in La Musique (15 Jan 1919-22 Dec 1922). The last-named is the most important, not only because of its length and its wealth of documentation (largely from the author's own scrapbooks and memorabilia), but also because for the first time a chronicler reached back to the times long before his own childhood. Despite its many inaccuracies, its gaps, and its mixture of anecdote and fact, LeVasseur's account remains a classic in the historiography of Canadian music.
The extraordinary growth of musical life about the turn of the century provided the incentive for a flurry of stock-takings, all of which reflect pride of achievement. Separate publications, with accounts of local concert life, musical worthies, and institutions, were H.H. Godfrey's A Souvenir of Musical Toronto (Toronto 1897, 1898-9), Hugo Talbot's Musical Halifax 1903-4 ([Halifax 1904]), and B.K. Sandwell's The Musical Red Book of Montreal (Montreal 1907). Sandwell, who later was known as a literary critic, provided a detailed account of 13 seasons of concert life, biographical sketches of some 94 musicians, specifications of church organs, and much other documentation. Though to some extent continued in the Montreal Music Year Book (Montreal 1931, 1932), Sandwell's compilation remained a singular effort in the detailed documentation of musical life in a specific Canadian locale until the documentations compiled by David Sale (of Toronto 1845-67), Dale McIntosh (of Victoria, BC 1850-99), and Juliette Bourassa-Trépanier and Lucien Poirier (of Quebec City 1764-99).
Surveys that appeared in reference books at least attempted to cover the whole of Canada. Based generally on superficial information-gathering and lacking historical depth, they range in size from F.H. Torrington's four-page essay 'Musical progress in Canada' in J. Castell Hopkins' Canada, An Encyclopedia of the Country (Toronto 1898-1900) and Susie (Mrs J.W.F.) Harrison's 23-page article 'Canada' in The Imperial History and Encyclopedia of Music (New York, Toronto 1909) to the 5 chapters of Edouard Hesselberg's 'A review of music in Canada' in the international edition of Modern Music and Musicians (New York, Toronto 1913) and the 11 chapters, by 9 different authors, in The Year Book of Canadian Art (London, Toronto 1913).
All this literature was written in English. In French-speaking Canada meanwhile several historians and archivists began to search 17th- and 18th-century literature and documents for information about musical life. It may be noted that little distinction was made between focusing on vernacular and cultivated music - more in line with the US approach to musical history than that of later Canadian historians. Among the results were Ernest Myrand'sNoëls anciens de la Nouvelle-France (Quebec City 1899, 1907, Montreal 1913, 1926), the musical references in Ernest Gagnon'sLouis Jolliet (Quebec City 1902, 1913, 1926, 1946), Gagnon's 'La musique à Québec au temps de Mgr de Laval' in La Nouvelle-France (May 1908), Ovide Lapalice's 'Les organistes et maîtres de musique à Notre-Dame de Montréal' in BRH (vol 25, August 1919), and É.-Z. Massicotte's 'La musique militaire sous le régime francais' in BRH (vol 39, July 1933). Le Bulletin des recherches historiques (Lévis, Que, 1895-1956) also featured many short contributions on music by Massicotte, J.-Edmond and Pierre-Georges Roy, Benjamin Sulte, and other historians.
The first person said to have begun writing a history of music in Canada was John Daniel Logan (journalist and professor of English, b Antigonish, NS, 1869, d Milwaukee, Wisc, 1929). No trace of it has been found, although Logan published valuable articles on Calixa Lavallée, 'Canada's first creative composer' (Canadian Courier, vol 2, 27 Jan 1912), on 'Musical composition in Canada' (The Year Book of Canadian Art), and on related topics.
The second quarter of the 20th century produced little evidence of a growing awareness of Canada's musical past. However, there appeared three French-language biographies that kindled a pride in past glories: Calixa Lavallée (Montreal 1936, 1950, 1966) by Eugène Lapierre, L'Albani (Montreal 1938) by Hélène Charbonneau, and La Palme-Issaurel (Montreal 1948) by Romain Gour. The scholarship revealed in these works is uneven; Lapierre, for example, neglected to consult biographical source material and inspect published scores in US libraries that would have been easy to locate.
Theses on Canadian topics began to be written in the 1930s. J.-R. Pelletier wrote an 'Apercu historique sur le chant liturgique de l'église, en Europe et dans la province ecclésiastique de Québec' (MUS D, Laval 1932), and Thomas C. Chattoe submitted 'Music in Canada' for a B MUS (Birmingham 1931). In the next decade Brother Pierre-Alphonse dealt with 'Chant et musique sacrée dans la Nouvelle-France' (MA, Ottawa 1948), and Kathleen M. Hobday compiled a Survey of the Musical Resources of the Province of Ontario (MA, Toronto 1946; Toronto 1946), an effort rivalling Sandwell's in thoroughness. At the same time Antonine Bernier of Montreal proposed the chapter structure for a history of music in Canada (four volumes to be devoted to Quebec City, Montreal, Ottawa, and Toronto, each volume divided into sections on 'musique profane' and 'musique religieuse'; copy in the files of Marius Barbeau), but this was not realized. The first broad panorama was unfolded in Marcelle Rousseau's thesis 'The rise of music in Canada' (MA, Columbia 1951).
Teaching and Research in Non-Canadian Areas
The introduction to Canada of musicology as an academic study dates back only to 1954, when the University of Toronto appointed Harvey J. Olnick, a graduate of Columbia U, to organize and teach a course leading to the M MUS degree. Olnick became the first chairman of the history and literature department created in 1968. Until his appointment music history had been a stepchild of university teaching, more often than not entrusted to a non-specialist. As late as the 1940s the same history lectures were given to University of Toronto undergraduates and to teenage students at the RCMT. The main point of studying music history, in the view of some of the older England-trained lecturers, was to carry on intelligent conversation on music or to write feuilletons. An elegant turn of phrase counted for more than the examination of facts. Scholarship was not to be an end in itself and 'musicology' suggested a suspect Teutonic learnedness.
It was at least 10 years after Olnick's arrival before professors had the encouragement or the time to engage in musical research. However, the emphasis on the teaching of history and literature and on the training in research methods increased rapidly in the 1960s and 1970s, and by 1980 most university music departments offered musicology taught by specialists.
There had been individual musicologists in Canada before 1954, of course, but they rarely worked in their own field. The first was Gustav Schilling (b Germany 1805, d Nebraska 1880), author or editor of at least 21 books on music, including a 6-volume Encyclopädie. Leaving Germany in 1857 he vainly tried to establish a conservatory in New York, then in Montreal, where he resided for some 10 years as a private teacher and a participant in musical societies. Though Schilling was castigated by Robert Schumann and later German writers for the shallowness and charlatanism of his writing, he was commended by Warren Dwight Allen in Philosophies of Music History (New York 1939) as one of the first to relate the history of music to the social and political environment and to the history of ideas. This first bona fide musicologist in Canada left no known contribution to the field during his Montreal years.
Central Europe remained the centre of musicology for many generations. The exodus of musicologists to the USA as the result of the Hitler régime (Willi Apel, Manfred Bukofzer, Alfred Einstein, Curt Sachs, and many others) had a fainter echo in Canada. Ida Halpern and Ulrich Leupold, from Vienna and Berlin respectively, arrived in Canada in 1939, the first with PH D degrees in musicology in the country. Halpern's main research was in ethnomusicology. A specialist in Lutheran church music, Leupold was engaged in musicology only marginally in Canada. The same was true of Arnold Walter and Walter Kaufmann, whose main energies were devoted to administration and conducting respectively. Another two persons from Vienna and Berlin, Willy Amtmann and Helmut Kallmann, who arrived in 1940, developed their musicological interests only in Canada and became the authors of the first books relating Canadian music history.
Among the first Canadian-born musicologists were Robert Talbot, a specialist in the theory of music who in the early 1930s was the only Canadian member of the International Musicological Society, and Alfred Bernier, whose field was church music. Both held D MUS degrees from Laval or Montreal and devoted their teaching careers to these universities. Other first-generation Canadian musicologists included Marvin Duchow of Montreal, Michael Winesanker (see USA), Giveon (Jim) Cornfield (see Canada Baroque Records), and Andrée Desautels (Desautels was probably the first Canadian-born specialist in the teaching of music history; she began this in 1949 at the CMM). Like many Canadian-born musicologists of a younger generation, these received an essential part of their training in the USA or another foreign country.
Musicology has taken root in Canada beyond all expectations. The contributions on the national and international scene have been noteworthy. While at first the practitioners frequently came from the USA and sometimes from Great Britain and France, Canadian specialists over the years have increased in number and rank. By 1990 some 150 academics were qualified musicologists, many of them also teaching composition, performance, or theory.
It is beyond the scope of this entry to deal in detail with the research interests and achievements of each musicologist; such information may be found in the individual entries given to many of them. Surveys of musicological activity and participation in Canadian or international conferences and organizations have been compiled for Acta Musicologica by Rika Maniates for the period 1963-79 and by Zoltan Roman for the period 1980-7 (see Bibliography). However, both overviews concentrate on non-Canadian subject matter, and Roman's survey omits many scholars who did not reply to his questionnaire.
The following summary of musicological concentrations by living or deceased scholars is organized according to main periods of European history, followed by a survey of special subjects. It includes Canadian-born as well as immigrant scholars, but, in the absence of means to evaluate each contribution precisely, preference in selection has been given to those whose contribution has been in more than one of the following fields: dissertation, teaching, published writing, and editing. Where applicable, a university or other institution (not necessarily the current one) and major specialty has been indicated. It may be taken for granted that individuals have worked in other periods or subjects as well.
A broad panorama also was Helmut Kallmann's aim when he began, in 1948, to collect data on Canada's musical history. He examined and compared the published literature mentioned above and proceeded to scan reference books, periodicals, local histories, travel accounts, and such primary sources as were available, extracting facts and relevant passages for alphabetical filing in much the way EMC is organized. Among the first byproducts of Kallmann's research were two outlines of Canadian music history: a chapter, 'Historical background,' in Music in Canada (1955) and an entry on Canada (Kanada) in MGG (1958). His main effort, however, was the preparation, begun in 1950, of A History of Music in Canada 1534-1914 (1960). The book for the first time assembled facts and quotations from scattered and often obscure sources to reveal the overall pattern of the transplantation of European music and of colonial development. The dearth of available sources during the 1950s - many published and manuscript compositions, music periodicals, and concert programs and much musicians' correspondence, etc, came to light only in the 1970s - caused the author to stress musical 'life' (or 're-creativity') rather than 'creativity,' and there is a lack of reference to simultaneous developments in the sister arts. Nonetheless, in demonstrating the diversity and age of musical endeavour in Canada, in identifying some of the shaping forces and establishing a framework of periodization, the book was a pioneer effort. Kallmann and others proceeded to investigate certain periods, aspects, and biographical subjects in greater detail. Andrée Desautels has provided a French-language summary of Canadian music history, 'Les trois âges de la musique au Canada,' in La Musique (vol 2, Paris 1965); the three ages are the French régime (17th century and the 18th to 1760), the British colonial period (1763-1918), and the modern period. Gordon Howell's 'The development of music in Canada' (PH D, Rochester 1959) combines a historical outline with a discussion of contemporary music. Clifford Ford wrote Canada's Music: An Historical Survey (Agincourt, Ont 1982), which takes an approach similar to Kallmann's into the 1970s, and Timothy J. McGee prepared a shorter survey for college use, The Music of Canada (New York 1985). George Proctor wrote an information-packed book on Canadian Music of the Twentieth Century (Toronto 1980), and J. Paul Green and Nancy Vogan traced Music Education in Canada: A Historical Account (Toronto 1991) in great detail.
The most detailed research in any special era has been that of Willy Amtmann on music under the French régime. Originally written as a doctoral thesis, his 'La vie musicale en Nouvelle-France' (Strasbourg 1956) was expanded later into Music in Canada 1600-1800 (1975) and further enlarged in its French-language version La Musique au Québec 1600-1875 (1976). In fact both volumes essentially are limited to the history of the province of Quebec. Amtmann brought an impressive technique of documentation, authentication, and comparison to bear on certain significant episodes, such as the Prose 'Sacrae familiae felix spectaculum' attributed to Charles-Amador Martin and the installation of the first organs in Quebec. He was concerned particularly with the elucidation of 17th-century musical terminology and was able to correct many errors or question assumptions made by earlier, more superficial, writers. Amtmann could not, however, overcome the sparseness of ascertainable musical facts of 17th- and 18th-century Canada, and he too was forced to make assumptions, albeit better founded ones.
Eventually Erich Schwandt, Elisabeth Gallat-Morin and other researchers during the 1980s have located and examined manuscript music, providing ample evidence for an intensive cultivation of art music in New France, at least in some places at some periods.
Musicological research into Canadian history, no matter how much hampered by the lack of available documentation, was able to yield practical results during the 1960s in the revival of 18th- and 19th-century compositions (notably Quesnel'sColas et Colinette, under Ten Centuries Concerts auspices; and Lavallée's The Widow, under CBC auspices). It also provided an impetus for the establishment of some of the first university courses on Canadian (or North American) music, including those at the University of Calgary (Johnston), Carleton University (Amtmann), the University of Montreal (Kendergi, Richer), the University of Saskatchewan (Adaskin), and the University of Toronto (Beckwith, Morey).
The dearth of musicological studies - relating both to history and to contemporary composition - was felt keenly when early in the 1970s the editors of EMC began planning their work. While international music encyclopedias usually are harvesters of work already done by specialists, EMC in its first edition was essentially a mobilizer of musicological activity. While many EMC entries were written by established experts, by far the greater number were by scholars who became specialists in the course of preparing an entry or a group of entries. A basis for musicological research in Canadian subject areas also was created in the 1970s with the establishment of a music division at the National Library of Canada in 1970 and the development of a music collection at the BN du Qafter 1968. The entries for Archives and Libraries provide details about the contents of these and other collections of historical and current Canadiana. The NL of C in particular has become a resource and consultation centre for historical and bibliographical research on music in Canada, as has the Canadian Music Centre for the study of 20th century composition.
It would hardly have been possible without these resources for a number of major Canadiana projects to unfold in the 1980s. The Association pour l'avancement de la recherche en musique du Québec (ARMuQ), founded in 1980, has organized conferences and research projects and in its Cahiers has provided an outlet for scholarly investigations into the music history of Quebec. The Canadian Musical Heritage Society (CMHS), formed in 1982, has produced a series of anthologies of Canadian compositions up the middle of the 20th century, and the Institute for Canadian Music, established at the University of Toronto in 1984 under the direction (1984-91) of John Beckwith has organized a number of conferences and published their proceedings. Beckwith, as one who applies research creatively, occupies a central place in the field largely due to his ability to make pioneer era music relevant to 20th-century composition. Examples are his arrangements and re-compositions for Music at Sharon, and his reconstruction of Quesnel's Lucas et Cécile, all of which illuminate the present through the past and thus help to build a Canadian tradition.
The following summary attempts to show the range of scholarly work done on the music of Canada between World War II and 1990. Theses and publications mentioned earlier in this entry are not repeated, nor is work listed which was done especially for EMC. It will be noted that most of the work has been in the nature of graduate theses; a fair amount also has been accomplished by journalist-scholars and by archivists, with the contribution by academics growing in the 1980s.
In this area important initial work was done by archivists. Phyllis R. Blakeley wrote on musical life in Halifax and Nova Scotia, J. Russell Harper prepared a manuscript called 'Spring tide: an enquiry into the lives, labours, loves, and manners of early New Brunswickers' (ca 1954) while at the New Brunswick Museum in Saint John, and Dorothy Blakey Smith wrote on 'Music in the furthest west a hundred years ago' (CMJ, vol 2, Summer 1958). Two avid researchers from opposite ends of the country have produced minute documentations of their provinces, Dale McIntosh in his A Documentary History of Music in Victoria, British Columbia: Volume I 1850-1899 (Victoria, BC 1981) and History of Music in British Columbia 1850-1950 (Victoria, BC 1989) and Paul Woodford in his books on Charles Hutton and Ignatius Rumboldt and his unpublished collection of data, sheet music, and pictures related to music in Newfoundland.
Theses include Norman John Kennedy's on musical life in Calgary 1875-1920 (MA, Alberta 1952), David Sale's on concert life in Toronto 1845-67, with a valuable itemization of all known programs (MA, Toronto 1968), William Lock's on Ontario church choirs and choral societies 1819-1918 (DMA, Southern California 1972), France Malouin-Gélinas's on musical life in Quebec City 1840-5 as described in newspapers and magazines of the day (M MUS, University of Montreal 1975), and Peter Slemon's on Montreal in the years 1841-67 (MMA, McGill 1976). Regional research by university teachers included that of William Bartlett on Prince Edward Island, Juliette Bourassa-Trépanier on Quebec City, Frederick Hall on western Ontario cities, Elaine Keillor on Ontario at the turn of the century, and Carl Morey on Toronto. J.-Antonio Thompson's history of musical life in Trois-Rivières was published in that city in 1970, and an account by Norman Draper of bands and band music in Calgary appeared in 1975. Vivianne Émond has critically examined LeVasseur's account of music in Quebec City (M MUS, Laval 1986), and Marie-Thérèse Lefebvre has written on women musicians (mainly composers) in Quebec (La Création musicale des femmes au Québec, Montreal 1991).
Theses on specific forms of composition or on groups of composers have included Stephanie Owen's on piano concertos (PH D, Washington 1969), a subject taken up also by Ireneus Zuk (DMA, Johns Hopkins 1985);William Lister's on violin sonatas (DMA, Boston 1970), Mary Beaulieu's on keyboard music (M MUS, Indiana 1970), Isabelle Mills' on music suitable for listening programs (ED D, Columbia 1971), Lee Hepner's on orchestral music (PH D, New York 1972), and Norman B. Chapman's on piano music (PH D, Case Western Reserve, 1973). Robert Skelton (D MUS, Indiana 1976), Horace Pitman McNeal (PH D, Ohio State 1979), and Robin Elliott (PH D, Toronto 1990) have written on Canadian string quartets; Timothy Maloney has investigated Canadian wind ensemble music (DMA, Rochester 1986). Lyse Richer has made comparative studies of music in Montreal and Toronto, and George Proctor wrote a comprehensive survey of composition, mentioned above.
Studies of individual composers or some of their works, in addition to the books listed under Biography, included the following:
Patricia Doyle (M MUS, Western Ont 1977) on W.H. Anderson
Harvey Don Huiner (Ph D, Iowa 1980) and Martha Massey (Potsdam, NY 1983) on Violet Archer
Laurine Elkins Marlow (PH D, Texas 1980) on Gena Branscombe
Sister Marie-Paule Provost (MA, Montreal 1970), Louise Bail Milot (M MUS, Sorbonne 1972), and Anne Walsh (PH D, Catholic U 1972) on Claude Champagne
Vivienne Rowley (DMA, Boston 1973) on Jean Coulthard
Pierre Quenneville (MA, Montreal 1980 and PH D, Montreal 1988) on Guillaume Couture
Elaine Dudley Smith (M MUS, Western Ont 1978), Glen B. Carruthers (MA, Carleton 1981) and Mark A. Rodgers (M MUS, Western Ont 1987) on S.C. Eckhardt-Gramatté
Hubert Tersteeg (M MUS, Western Ont 1978), William Godsalve (MA, Saskatchewan 1981), Christine DeWit Keitges (DMA, Arizona State 1988) on Robert Fleming
Gordon E. Smith (PH D, Toronto 1989) on Ernest Gagnon
Marie-Thérèse Lefebvre (PH D, Montreal 1981) on Serge Garant
George Evelyn, Jr (DMA, North Texas State 1981) on Srul Irving Glick
Roger Martin Knox (PH D, Rochester 1988) on Jacques Hétu
Juliette Bourassa-Trépanier (D MUS, Laval 1972) on Rodolphe Mathieu
Richard Elmer Mueller (PH D, Chicago 1983) and Carol J. Oja (PH D, City U of New York 1985) on Colin McPhee
Timothy Gene Cooper (DMA, Georgia 1989) on John Medley
Claire Villeneuve (M MUS, Montreal 1975) Léo-Pol Morin
Roch Poulin (MA, Montreal 1961) and Clotilde Denis (L MUS, Montreal 1972) on Jean Papineau-Couture
Sheila Eastman (M MUS, British Columbia 1974) on Barbara Pentland
John William Schuster-Craig (PH D, Kentucky 1987) and Alan Freedman (MA San Diego State 1988) on Clermont Pépin
Wayne Gilpin (M MUS, Alberta 1978) on Godfrey Ridout
Kaye Frances Pottie (M MUS, Western Ont 1980), Linda A. Beaupre (M MUS, Western Ont 1984), Susan Bradley (M MUS, Alberta 1983), and Kirk MacKenzie (M MUS, Cincinnati 1988 and PH D, Cincinnati 1991) on R. Murray Schafer
David Duke (MA, North Carolina 1973), Frances Smith (M MUS, Western Ont 1973), Edward Gregory Butler (DMA, Rochester 1974), Diane Houghton (DMA, Missouri 1980), Leonard J. Enns (PH D, Northwestern 1982) on Harry Somers
Brian Belet (DMA, Illinois 1990) on James Tenney
Norman B. Chapman (PH D, Case Western Reserve 1972), Malcolm Hines (M MUS Western Ont 1975), Douglas Webb (PH D, Rochester 1977) on John Weinzweig
Alan Lehl (MA, ESM, Rochester 1957), Jacob Wagner (M Sacred MUS, Union Theological Seminary 1957), Robert Massingham (M MUS, North Texas State 1967), Frederick Telschow (PH D, Rochester 1969), William Marwick (PH D, Michigan State 1970), Joylin Campbell-Yukl (PH D, Missouri 1976), Edward Wagner (Master of Divinity, Yale 1978), Keith Hamlin (Master of Theology, Trinity College, Toronto 1979), Norman Johnson (DMA, Southern Baptist Theological Seminary 1979), William Renwick (DMA, British Columbia 1982), on Healey Willan
In addition to biographical research on composers and to book-length biographies, theses have been prepared by Nadia Turbide on C.A.E. Harriss (MMA, McGill 1976) and on Eva Gauthier (PH D, Montreal 1986), by Jacques-André Houle on Frantz Jehin-Prume (premier prix, CMM 1989), and by Cécile Huot on Wilfrid Pelletier (doctoral thesis, Toulouse 1973). A number of theses have been written, or were in preparation in 1991 on Glenn Gould, who in the decade after his death had become the largest single written-about Canadian musician. J.B. McPherson and Ruby Mercer have written on Canadian singers, and Gilles Potvin has done extensive research on Emma Albani and Eva Gauthier.
Various Other Subjects
The single Canadian subject with the largest number of theses is music education. A selection of such theses is listed in the bibliographies under School music and in the monograph Music Education in Canada (Toronto 1991) by J. Paul Green and Nancy F. Vogan, a comprehensive investigation of the field. Several theses have been written also on church music. Among the other subjects are pre-Confederation music publishing (Maria Calderisi, MMA, McGill 1976), Ukrainian musical culture in Canada (Philip Bassa, MA, Montreal 1955), and the socio-economic status of Canadian composers (Marie Vachon, MA, Carleton 1975).
Organ building has been investigated by Antoine Bouchard of Laval University, and John S. McIntosh of the University of Western Ontario, the organ history of Quebec City to 1837 by Carole Grégoire (M MUS, Laval 1990). In 1979 Laurent Lapointe published a comprehensive account of the first 100 years of the Quebec organ builders Casavant Frères 1879-1979 (St-Hyacinthe 1979). Norma MacSween has studied the history of classical guitar in Canada (MA, Carleton 1990). Edward B. Moogk made the history of sound recording a lifelong study. Thelma Reid Lower of Vancouver has written extensively on choral societies. Dorith Cooper has produced an exhaustive study of opera in Montreal and Toronto (PH D, Toronto 1983) and Dorothy H. Farquharson has researched singing schools (O, for a Thousand Tongues to Sing, Waterdown, Ont 1983). Mark Miller has studied and written about the history of jazz music in Canada. Patricia Wardrop and Helmut Kallmann prepared a detailed documentation of 'O Canada' for the NL of C in 1982. Other subject specialists are mentioned in the entries on Bibliography; Discography; Hymns and hymn tunes; and Jazz. For a directory of EMC articles on church music see Religions and music.
Middle Ages and Renaissance
Gaston Allaire (Moncton; music theory, Claudin de Sermisy)
Terence Bailey (British Columbia, Western Ontario; plainchant)
Bruce Bellingham (U of Connecticut; renaissance, Georg Rhau)
Yves Chartier (Ottawa; music theory 9th to 15th centuries, aesthetics)
Dimitri Conomos (British Columbia; Byzantine chant)
Eugene Cramer (Calgary; Polish renaissance)
Robert Falck (Toronto; 13th century, conductus)
Jean Gagné (Ensemble Claude-Gervaise; performance practise)
Bryan Gillingham (Carleton; editing, Institute for Medieval Music)
Gordon Greene (Wilfrid Laurier; 14th century French secular music)
Paul Helmer (McGill; western liturgical chant)
Andrew Hughes (Toronto; medieval liturgical music)
Herman T. Keahey (Manitoba; Pierre de la Rue)
Walter Kemp (Dalhousie; late medieval English music, Canadian organ history)
H. Bruce Lobaugh (Regina; late 16th century)
Rika Maniates (Toronto; renaissance, aesthetics)
Christine Mather (Victoria, Wilfrid Laurier; Heinrich Isaac)
Timothy McGee (Toronto; performance practise)
Paul Merkley (Ottawa; middle ages, 20th century)
Neil K. Moran (Byzantine chant)
Jay Rahn (York; music theory)
H. Colin Slim (California; renaissance)
Dujka Smoje (Montreal; middle ages)
17th and 18th centuries
Anne Baker (Lully)
Elizabeth M. Bartlet (Duke; 18th-century Italian opera)
Irène Brisson (CMQ; music at Versailles under Louis XIV, music in Quebec)
Gregory G. Butler (British Columbia; Bach)
Glen B. Carruthers (Lakehead; Bach performance practise)
Victor Coelho (Calgary; Italy, lute tablature)
Donald Cook (Memorial; English baroque theatre music)
Mary Cyr (McGill; French opera, Rameau)
Marvin Duchow (McGill; late 18th century, Encyclopédistes)
Élisabeth Gallat-Morin (Montreal; early keyboard music)
Sharyn Lea Hall (McMaster;18th century opera)
Michelle Fillion (Haydn, CPE Bach)
Kenneth Gilbert (keyboard music)
Delores Keahey (Manitoba; J.C. Bach)
Warren Kirkendale (Duke; 18th century chamber music)
Gordana Lazarevich (Victoria; Italian musical theatre)
Ulrich Leupold (Wilfrid Laurier; Lutheran music)
Sandra Mangsen (Western Ontario)
Paul Marshall (flute music editing, Hotteterre)
John Mayo (Toronto; Handel)
Hugh McLean (Western Ontario; editing, eg, J.L. Krebs, C.P.E. Bach)
Carl Morey (Toronto; opera)
Jaroslav Mrácek (Southern California; 17th century instrumental and Czech music)
Donald Neville (Western Ontario; Mozart)
Harvey Olnick (Toronto; Italian baroque)
Mary Ann Parker (Toronto; Handel)
Lucien Poirier (Laval; baroque keyboard music)
Paul Rice (Memorial)
Rudolf Schnitzler (Queen's; baroque oratorio)
David P. Schroeder (Dalhousie; Haydn, Schubert)
Richard Semmens (Western Ontario; French baroque, woodwind music)
Ernest White (editing early organ music)
Marion Barnum (Iowa State; J.N. Hummel)
H. Robert Cohen (Laval, British Columbia, later in USA; Berlioz, French musical press)
James Deaville (McMaster; Liszt)
Philip Downs (Western Ontario; orchestral music)
Steven Huebner (McGill; Gounod)
Gaynor Jones (Toronto; Weber)
William Kinderman (Victoria; Beethoven, Wagner)
Donald McCorkle (British Columbia; Brahms)
Margit McCorkle (British Columbia; Brahms)
Sabrina Ratner (Saint-Saëns)
Zoltan Roman (Calgary; Mahler)
R. Murray Schafer (E.T.A. Hoffmann)
James Stark (Toronto; early baroque, Beethoven and Schubert)
Alan Walker (McMaster; Chopin, Liszt, Schumann)
Stephen C. Willis (NL of C; Cherubini)
Kathryn Bailey (Western Ontario; dodecaphony)
William Benjamin (British Columbia; Schoenberg, Stravinsky, Webern)
Austin Clarkson (York; Varèse; Wolpe)
Louis Cyr (Stravinsky)
Tom Gordon (Bishop's; Stravinsky)
Kenneth Hicken (Lethbridge; Schoenberg)
Louise Hirbour (Montreal; Varèse)
Lothar Klein (Toronto; Stravinsky)
Nicole Labelle (Ottawa; French music 1870-1945, especially Albert Roussel)
Alan Lessem (York; Schoenberg, US music)
Wilbur Maust (Waterloo; US music)
Marc-André Roberge (Laval; Busoni)
R. Murray Schafer (Ezra Pound and music, acoustic ecology)
Howard Spring (Guelph; US music)
William Westcott (York; US music)
Gerhard Wuensch (Toronto; Max Reger)
The 1980s were marked by a broadening of academic interest in many directions, among them studies in Canadian music, in 20th century music, in jazz and in popular culture,.the last-named usually of an interdisciplinary nature. Thus Trent University, though without a music department, maintains an Institute for Studies in Popular Culture and in 1983 hosted a conference on the Sociology of Music. Brock University maintains a Popular Music Archive; Carleton University has opened a School for Studies in Arts and Culture. Its director, John Shepherd has been an executive of the International Association for the Study of Popular Music. The editing of historical music has occupied many Canadian scholars. The Conference in Editorial Problems, an international gathering, held its 26th annual meeting (the first on music) in Toronto in 1990.
István Anhalt (Queen's; treatment of voice in contemporary music)
Sterling Beckwith (York; computer applications to composition and education)
Yves Chartier (Ottawa; computer applications to musicology)
Graham George (Queens; tonality)
Bryan N.S. Gooch (Victoria; literary texts and music)
Keith Hamel (British Columbia; computers and music)
Kenneth Hull (Waterloo; aesthetics)
Jean-Jacques Nattiez (Montreal; semiology of music)
Geoffrey Payzant (Toronto; aesthetics, perception)
Jean-Pierre Pinson (Laval; rhetoric and music)
Percival Price (Michigan; campanology)
John Shepherd (Carleton; music as a social phenomenon)
Rita Steblin (key characteristics)
Alan Walker (McMaster; criticism)
Phillip Young (Victoria; organology)
See also Acoustics research in Canada; Bibliography; Computers and music; Criticism; Ethnomusicology; Jazz; Music education research; Psychology of music; Religions and music; Theory and analysis. For Sociology of music, see Music as a social phenomenon.
Most of those mentioned above have published articles, and many have written books or prepared scholarly editions of music (more often than not for foreign publishers and publication series). There is no space here to provide a list of such works, but as examples of the tracing of lost or neglected scores (and at the risk of ignoring the discoveries of other scholars) one might cite Adolph Koldofsky's authentication in the early 1940s of several C.P.E. Bach concertos, Mary Cyr's location of Rameau's Cantate pour la fête de Saint Louis, Andrée Desautels's of a Marc-Antoine Charpentier manuscript in Quebec City and of a late 16th century Italian lute tablature at the CMM, and Hugh McLean's of C.P.E. Bach, Haydn, A. Scarlatti, and J.H. Schein compositions in Poland and eastern Germany. Élisabeth Gallat-Morin found the Livre d'orgue de Montréal, Daniel Swift located a musical play by Poulenc and Cocteau, Rita Steblin discovered a portrait of Beethoven, and Sabrina Ratner located a string quartet by Saint-Saëns at the Bibliothèque nationale in Paris, which was subsequently premiered in Canada.
Walter Kunstler, a Montreal surgeon, did research on the olympic theme in music which shaped the McGill Chamber Orchestra's programming during the 1976 Montreal Olympics. E.P. Scarlett, a Calgary physician, has investigated the causes of death of certain famous musicians. Thomas Archer's study of Richard Strauss, Francean Campbell's work on Milhaud, and J.B. McPherson's biography of Ernestine Schumann-Heink remain manuscripts, but Fernand Ouellette's book on Edgard Varèse was published. A Toronto professor of English, William Blissett, is an authority on Wagner, as is a Toronto classics professor, M. Owen Lee. Jean-Louis Côté of Ottawa has made an intensive study of Boccherini. Jack Diether (1919-87), born and educated in Vancouver, and later an employee of G. Schirmer Inc. in New York, was known as a Mahler researcher and as editor of Chord and Discord (Bruckner Society of America). Paul Macenko of Winnipeg has written on Ukrainian musicians and edited Ukrainian music. Jaak Liivoja-Lorius wrote entries on old instruments for the New Grove. Other examples of private research could be cited.
Individual Canadian musicologists belong to the American Musicological Society and the International Musicological Society. No specific all-Canadian musicological association exists, but the Canadian University Music Society with its annual meetings held as part of the Learned Societies' conferences and its journal (Canadian University Music Review) provides an outlet for the reading and publishing of papers and for personal contact. ARMuQ has provided a forum for work related to Quebec. In addition, informal meetings of Canadian musicologists have taken place at the University of Toronto in 1970 ('Canadian Studies Seminar'), at Queen's University in 1979, and at York University in 1980. Other outlets for musicological studies have been the Cahiers de l'ARMuQ, Canadian Music Journal, the Canada Music Book, Sonances, and Studies in Music from the University of Western Ontario. During the 1980s Canadian scholars have also had stronger presence at international meetings, and many Canadians have served on international editorial and executive boards.