Canada at the Paralympic Games | The Canadian Encyclopedia


Canada at the Paralympic Games

The Paralympic Games are an international competition for elite athletes with a disability. The name comes from "para," as in "parallel" or "equal." Like the Olympics, the Paralympic Games take place every two years, alternating between summer and winter sports. The country hosting the Olympic Games also hosts the Paralympics. Canada has participated in the Paralympic Games since 1968.
Chantal Petitclerc
Canada's Chantal Petitclerc, left, smiles after she won the Women's 1500m T54 final at the Beijing 2008 Paralympic Games in Beijing, China, Sept. 16, 2008.
Brian Mckeever
Brian Mckeever of Canada races during the semifinal of the men's cross country 1km sprint, visually impaired event at the\r\n2014 Winter Paralympic Games, Wednesday, March 12, 2014, in\r\nKrasnaya Polyana, Russia.
Benoît Huot
Canadian Paralympic swimmer Benoît Huot poses for a photograph at the Pan Am Sports Centre in Scarborough, Ontario, on Wednesday, 14 January 2015

The Paralympic Games are an international competition for elite athletes with a disability. The name comes from para, as in parallel or equal. Like the Olympics, the Paralympic Games take place every two years, alternating between summer and winter sports. The country hosting the Olympic Games also hosts the Paralympics. Canada has participated in the Paralympic Games since 1968.

Para-athletes Classification

Paralympic athletes include those with spinal cord injuries, visual impairment, cerebral palsy, limb amputations, les autres (disabilities that do not fit in the other categories) and those with intellectual disabilities. In order to provide a level playing field, where athletes can compete fairly with their peers, each Paralympic athlete is classified according to the impact of their disability on athletic performance.

In the past, these divisions were based solely on medical classification: spinal cord injury athletes did not compete against amputee athletes, for example. The next method was functional classification: all athletes in the same class would have similar levels of function in such areas as range of motion, coordination and balance.

Para-athletes are now classified according to the impact of their impairment on athletic performance. The International Federation (governing body) of each sport develops its own classification system and assigns classifiers who evaluate and assign athletes to specific “sport classes.”

Sports at the Paralympic Games

Athletics Badminton Boccia Canoe
Cycling Equestrian Football 5-a-side Football 7-a-side Goalball
Judo Powerlifting Rowing Sailing Shooting
Sitting Volleyball Swimming Table Tennis Taekwondo Triathlon
Wheelchair Basketball Wheelchair Dance Sport Wheelchair Fencing Wheelchair Rugby Wheelchair Tennis
Alpine Skiing
Biathlon Cross-country Skiing Para Ice Hockey
Wheelchair Curling

Para-sport and Technological Innovation

There has been some debate about new technological devices used by Paralympic athletes. For example, South African Oscar Pistorius, also called "Blade Runner" due to his "flex feet" prosthetics, gave astonishing performances at the Beijing 2008 Summer Games. Pistorius does not have legs beneath the knees. The carbon fibre and titanium prostheses are light weight, and provide strength and flexibility. His exceptional racing performances caused some debate about the meaning of "disability in elite sport. Pistorious’ abilities generated discussion on his potential to compete with Olympic athletes. Pistorius did compete in Olympic qualifying meets, but his results were slower than the set times for entrance to the competition.

The advances in prosthetic devices and in wheelchair technology have contributed to significant growth in para-sport, including the creation of new sports and events, increased participation and improved performance. However, this technology is expensive, and is out of reach for many athletes — particularly those in developing countries. Running prostheses, for example, cost tens of thousands of dollars.

Even in Canada, the cost of assistive technologies can be prohibitive. For example, when wheelchair racer Chantal Petitclerc first started competing, she could not afford a racing wheelchair, which at the time cost around $4,000. With only $400, she had a chair made from the parts of three second-hand wheelchairs.

However, financial assistance is available for amateur and elite para-athletes in Canada, particularly through the Canadian Paralympic Committee’s Para-Equipment Fund and Jumpstart Fund. These funds provide grants to local clubs (e.g., Kiwanis, Lions Clubs), sporting associations (e.g., Athletics Canada, Rowing Canada) and provincial organizations (e.g., Parasport Ontario) to support the purchase of para-equipment and the development of para-sport programs.

Paralympic Sport and Anti-doping

Paralympic athletes are subject to the same anti-doping laws as Olympic athletes. The International Paralympic Committee Anti-Doping Code was formally adopted in 2004. However, the first official anti-doping testing was performed at the 1988 Seoul Paralympics, although some tests had been performed on wheelchair athletes during the 1984 Paralympics in Great Britain. Anti-doping laws were enacted to support fair play in elite athletics.

Canada at the Paralympic Summer Games (Medals)

Location Rank Medals
1960 Rome, Italy
1964 Tokyo, Japan
1968 Tel Aviv, Israel 12 19
1972 Heidelberg, Germany 13 19
1976 Toronto, Ontario 6 77
1980 Arnhem, the Netherlands 4 130
1984 New York/Stoke Mandeville 3 238
1988 Seoul, South Korea 4 152
1992 Barcelona, Spain 6 75
1996 Atlanta, Georgia 7 69
2000 Sydney, Australia 3 96
2004 Athens, Greece 3 72
2008 Beijing, China 7 50
2012 London, England 20 31
2016 Rio, Brazil 14 29

Canada at the Paralympic Winter Games (Medals)

Location Rank Medals
1976 Örnsköldsvik, Sweden 9 4
1980 Geilo, Norway 8 6
1984 Innsbruck, Austria 10 14
1988 Innsbruck, Austria 8 13
1992 Tignes-Albertville, France 9 12
1994 Lillehammer, Norway 14 8
1998 Nagano, Japan 15 15
2002 Salt Lake City, Utah 6 15
2006 Torino, Italy 6 13
2010 Vancouver, British Columbia 3 19
2014 Sochi, Russia 3 16
2018 PyeongChang, South Korea 2 28

Early History of the Paralympic Movement (1948–60)

The movement towards competitive sports for individuals with disabilities began in the United Kingdom at the Stoke Mandeville Spinal Injuries Unit during the Second World War. In 1944, Sir Ludwig Guttmann, a neurosurgeon, looked for ways to integrate the ex-soldiers in his care back into society. He realized that sports could work wonders in motivating them to exercise. The first team sport at Stoke Mandeville was wheelchair polo, followed by basketball.

The first competition for wheelchair athletes was an archery competition held on 28 July 1948. Known as the Stoke Mandeville Games for the Paralysed, 16 injured servicemen and women competed in the Games. The Stoke Mandeville Games were held yearly after 1948, and became international in 1952 with the addition of a Dutch team.

Guttmann envisioned international games: Olympics for athletes with disabilities. In 1960 in Rome, immediately after the Olympics, Guttmann watched as 400 athletes with disabilities entered the Olympic Stadium. The 1960 Games are now considered the first Paralympic Games.

Sir Ludwig Guttmann died in 1980, having seen the influence of his Games touch thousands of people worldwide. His vision inspires all who strive for his dream: the full integration of those with disabilities into mainstream society.

Growth of the Paralympic Movement (1960–88)

Between 1952 and 1970 the international scope of the Stoke Mandeville Games grew but still followed a medical model with a rehabilitation mentality. Meanwhile, other parasport organizations developed around the world.

The first National Wheelchair Basketball Tournament was held in the United States in 1949, followed by the National Wheelchair Games in 1957. While the Stoke Mandeville Games limited participants to those with spinal injuries, the American organizations welcomed competitors with any type of lower body impairment.

More sports and competitions, as well as other disabilities, were added to the Games in 1964. The International Games for the Disabled in Tokyo, Japan, in 1964 (the second Paralympic Games) saw the first wheelchair races, which were held as demonstration events. In 1975 the Gold Cup Wheelchair Basketball World Championships were established.

At the same time, winter sports for the disabled were developing in Europe. The first Winter Games were held in 1976 in Örnsköldsvik, Sweden, for athletes who were blind, amputees and people with spinal cord injuries. Later that year in Toronto, Ontario, Summer Games competitors included the blind, amputees and les autres athletes for the first time.

At the 1980 Summer Games in Arnhem, the Netherlands, athletes with cerebral palsy competed for the first time. The 1980 Winter Games were held in Geilo, Norway. By this time there were several parasport organizations involved in organizing the Games.

In 1984, owing to problems with funding and organization, the Paralympic Summer Games were split. Two Games were held: one in Stoke Mandeville for athletes with spinal cord injuries and one in New York for amputees, the blind and those with cerebral palsy. Winter Games were held in Innsbruck, Austria, the same year. Innsbruck also hosted the 1988 Paralympic Winter Games.

The 1988 Seoul Paralympics showed the effects of improved organization and the shift in the parasport community from sport as rehabilitation, to sport as recreation, to elite sport. These Games are considered the first of the modern Paralympic era.

International Paralympic Committee Founded 1989

The International Paralympic Committee (IPC) was founded on 21 September 1989. Dr. Robert Steadward, a Canadian expert in the field of parasport, was elected president, and would lead the parasport movement into a new age. On 8 December 2001, Philip Craven, from Great Britain, succeeded Dr. Steadward as president.

The official red, blue and green IPC logo evolved from the five-teardrop Seoul Paralympic logo, which was based on the symbol of yin and yang. The three teardrops match the three words of the IPC motto: "Mind, Body, Spirit."

While federations continue to administer their individual sport disability groups, the IPC organizes all world championships, Paralympic trials, and Games.

Summer Games Since 1988

1998 Paralympic Summer Games in Seoul

The Seoul games in 1988, run with military precision, were truly world class. Athletes performed in front of full-capacity, highly appreciative crowds. Many of the officials had honed their skills at the Olympic Games. Athletes were housed in a specially constructed village designed to be used after the Games by individuals with disabilities. They competed in the same venues as Olympic athletes. Official transport was efficient and prompt, although the monumental amount of vehicular traffic caused some incidents. The opening ceremonies were spectacular: skydivers, jets flying past, thousands of children, a tae kwon do demonstration and 700 wheelchair dancers.

But Seoul had its problems too; due to a shortage of housing, only 3,000 athletes were able to attend the Games. There were also some technical issues with officiating. In addition, the organizers eliminated many events involving athletes with severe disabilities. This decision was a symptom of the change these Games represented: the Paralympic athlete must be the elite athlete.

1992 Paralympic Summer Games in Barcelona

The Paralympics were held in Barcelona, Spain, in 1992. Because the organizing committee was closely linked to the Olympic committee, standards in all areas were very high. Elite athletes were given elite treatment, including a brand-new housing complex right on the Mediterranean Sea. They competed to packed houses, with spectators lining up for hours to get the best seats.

The opening ceremonies were a marvel of art and organization, from the Picasso-inspired masks given to spectators, to the Gothic cathedral backdrop, to the flamenco dancers and horsemen, all reflecting Spanish culture and traditions. Daily television coverage ensured that all Spain and much of Europe shared in the excitement.

Highlights included Ajibola Adeoye of Nigeria, a single-arm amputee, running the 100 m in 10.72 seconds. Tony Volpentest, using two prostheses, ran 100 m in 11.63 seconds, only 1.77 slower than Carl Lewis's record of 9.86. The Canadian women's wheelchair basketball team, led by star Chantal Benoit, who scored 18 points, fought a glorious match, defeating the United States 35–26.

1996 Paralympic Summer Games in Atlanta

The Atlanta games in 1996 saw three major milestones. First, more athletes from more countries set more world records than ever before. These included athletes with intellectual disabilities. A second milestone was the involvement of worldwide and national sponsors who saw the Paralympics as an investment opportunity. The third major change was the involvement of a broadcaster that provided a television feed around the world (although most of the coverage focused on American athletes).

Atlanta did see stellar athletic achievement: 269 world records were set at the Games. However, there were also problems. Attendance was poor, and the venues and athletes' village had been left in very poor shape after the Olympics. Although athletes and officials praised Atlanta's thousands of volunteers, there were also issues with transportation and food service.

2000 Paralympic Summer Games in Sydney

Superb organization, enthusiastic participation and record-breaking performance made Sydney's 2000 Games a splendid summer Paralympics. Facilities and services offered to Paralympians equalled those that Olympic athletes enjoyed. Organizers sold more than double the number of tickets sold in Atlanta. Over 2,000 media representatives were on-site to cover the Games. New for these Games was web casting, with the public being able to watch Paralympic competitions on the Internet.

Host country Australia won 149 medals, while Canada won 96. The Canadian swim team won an incredible 23 gold, 15 silver and 10 bronze medals. The Canadians set 20 world and 23 Paralympic records. Calgary swimmer Jessica Sloan had six gold medal world record performances. Wheelchair racer Jeff Adams won five medals: two gold, in the 500 m and 800 m, silver in the 400 m, and bronze in both the 5000 m and the 4x100 m relay.

2004 Paralympic Summer Games in Athens

Athens 2004 was even bigger than Sydney, and included many "firsts" for the Paralympics. A record-breaking 3,806 athletes from 136 countries participated. For the first time women competed in volleyball (sitting) and judo. These Games were the most popular to that point, with the most television coverage — over 300 hours — and the most tickets sold — over 800,000.

China emerged as a Paralympic power, with 141 medals, while Canada won 72, including 28 gold. Canadian swimmers won 40 medals, more than half the Canadian team's total. Swimmers Benoît Huot and Kirby Cote, and wheelchair racer Chantal Petitclerc each won five gold medals. Swimmer Stephanie Dixon won a total of eight medals.

The Canadian men's basketball team repeated their Sydney gold-medal performance, this time defeating the powerhouse Australian team 70–53 in the final.

2008 Paralympic Summer Games in Beijing

The 2008 Summer Games were held in Beijing, China, with spectacular opening and closing ceremonies. Canada hoped to finish in the top five medal standings, but placed seventh overall. China captured first place, followed in order by Great Britain, the United States, Australia and Ukraine. Canada's Paralympic athletes won 50 medals in events including wheelchair racing, discus, marathon and other running events, shot put, and long jump.

At the 2008 Games, Canada's Paralympic athletes achieved phenomenal results and demonstrated that they were international elite athletes. Canadians truly stood out in wheelchair racing — Chantal Petitclerc won five gold medals in racing events, setting new world records in three events. She retired after the 2008 Beijing games, ending a remarkable career.

2012 Paralympic Summer Games in London

The 2012 Paralympic Summer Games in London, England, received more press coverage than any previous Paralympic event. With the participation of over 4,200 athletes from 164 nations (the biggest Games to that point) and following on the heels of the London Olympic Games, the 2012 Paralympics drew the attention of viewers from around the world, who followed the event through the reportage of over 6,000 media representatives. Sixteen countries sent athletes for the first time to compete in the Paralympics: Antigua and Barbuda, Brunei, Cameroon, Comoros, Djibouti, Congo, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Malawi, Mozambique, North Korea, San Marino, Solomon Islands, Trinidad and Tobago, and the US Virgin Islands.

Canada brought a total of 145 athletes to compete in 15 sports in London and, although expectations were high, the team was unable to achieve its stated objective of finishing within the top eight positions. With a total of seven gold medals, Canada's final gold medal count was well behind the 19 won at the previous games in Beijing. Canadian athletes also earned 15 silver and nine bronze medals, ending up in 20th place overall, prompting Canadian Paralympic Committee chief executive officer Henry Storgaard to state that "a Paralympic medal is more valuable and harder to achieve. The world has changed for Paralympic sport over the last two weeks and Canada needs to change with it."

Canada could, however, be very proud of its athletes. The swim team was particularly successful, winning 16 medals, including a pair of gold. The men's wheelchair basketball team also won gold, as did wheelchair sprinter Michelle Stilwell and road cyclist Robbi Weldon. Montréal swimmer Benoît Huot, who won a complete set of gold, silver and bronze medals, and set a world record in the 200 m individual medley relay, was chosen Canada's flag bearer for the closing ceremonies.

2016 Paralympic Summer Games in Rio

The 2016 Paralympic Summer Games in Rio were a success on many levels. A total of 4,333 athletes (2,663 men and 1,670 women) competed in the Games, representing 159 countries as well as a new Independent Paralympic Athletes team that included refugee athletes. Over 2 million spectators watched the Games in-person, the second largest crowd after London 2012. This was thanks in part to the #FillTheSeats campaign, which raised money to help Brazilian children and those with disabilities attend the Games (Prince Harry and British pop group Coldplay were among the celebrity contributors).

Over 200 world records and 400 Paralympic Games records were set in Rio. Sadly, the Games were also the scene of a tragedy, when Iranian cyclist Bahman Golbarnez died following a crash in the road race; he was the first Paralympian to die during competition.

Team Canada brought 162 athletes to Rio, competing in 19 sports. The Chef de Mission was five-time Paralympian and Canadian senator Chantal Petitclerc. The team finished 14th overall, with 29 medals in total (8 gold, 10 silver and 11 bronze), including eight medals each in swimming and in athletics (track and field) and nine medals in cycling. Like Olympian Penny Oleksiak, Paralympic swimmer Aurélie Rivard took home four medals — including three golds — and was chosen as flag-bearer for the closing ceremonies. Also in the pool, veteran Benoît Huot won a bronze in the men’s 400m freestyle (S10), his 20th medal in Paralympic competition. Runner Brent Lakatos won four medals, while cyclists Tristen Chernove (three), Ross Wilson (two) and Charles Moreau (two) also took home multiple medals. Veteran Paralympian and politician Michelle Stilwell added two gold medals to her collection, taking the women’s 400m and 100m events (T51/52). Canadian Paralympians also medalled in triathlon, sailing and rowing. However, for the first time in 24 years, neither the men’s nor the women’s wheelchair basketball team made it to the podium. Similarly, the wheelchair rugby team finished 4th, failing to medal for the first time since Sydney 2000.

Rio 2016 Medals

Sport Event Medal
Aurélie Rivard Swimming Women’s 50m Freestyle (S10) Gold
Brent Lakatos Athletics Men’s 100m (T53) Gold
Michelle Stilwell Athletics Women’s 400m (T51/52) Gold
Aurélie Rivard Swimming Women’s 100m Freestyle (S10) Gold
Tristen Chernove Cycling Road Men’s Time Trial (C2) Gold
Katarina Roxon Swimming Women’s 100m Breaststroke (SB8) Gold
Aurélie Rivard Swimming Women’s 400m Freestyle (S10) Gold
Michelle Stilwell Athletics Women’s 100m (T51/52) Gold
Ross Wilson Cycling Track Men’s 3000m Individual Pursuit (C1) Silver
Tristen Chernove Cycling Track Men’s 3000m Individual Pursuit (C2) Silver
Alister McQueen Athletics Men’s Javelin Throw (F42/43/44) Silver
Stefan Daniel Triathlon Men (PT4) Silver
Brent Lakatos Athletics Men’s 400m (T53) Silver
Liam Stanley Athletics Men’s 1500m (T37) Silver
Aurélie Rivard Swimming Women’s 200m Individual Medley (SM10) Silver
Tess Routliffe Swimming Women’s 200m Individual Medley (SM7) Silver
Ross Wilson Cycling Road Men’s Time Trial (C1) Silver
John McRoberts, Jackie Gay Sailing 2-Person Keelboat (SKUD18) Silver
Tristen Chernove Cycling Track Men’s 1000m Time Trial (C1/2/3) Bronze
Victoria Nolan, Meghan Montgomery, Andrew Todd, Curtis Halladay, Kristen Kit Rowing LTA Mixed Coxed Four (LTAMix4+) Bronze
Charles Moreau Cycling Road Men’s Time Trial (H3) Bronze
Michael Sametz Cycling Road Men’s Time Trial (C3) Bronze
Shelley Gautier Cycling Road Women’s Time Trial (T1/2) Bronze
Charles Moreau Cycling Road Men’s Road Race (H3) Bronze
Benoît Huot Swimming Men’s 400m Freestyle (S10) Bronze
Brent Lakatos Athletics Men’s 800m (T52/53) Bronze
Paul Tingley, Scott Lutes, Logan Campbell Sailing 3-Person Keelboat (Sonar) Bronze
Nicolas Guy Turbide Swimming Men’s 100m Backstroke (S13) Bronze
Brent Lakatos, Curtis Thom, Tristan Smyth, Alexandre Dupont Athletics Men’s 4X400m Relay (T53/54) Bronze

Winter Games Since 1992

1992 Paralympic Winter Games in Tignes-Albertville

The 1992 Winter Games in Tignes-Albertville, France, included only skiing events; the ice sports of sledge racing and hockey were not included as no facilities for these sports were available. Four hundred and seventy-five athletes from 24 countries competed. Athletes with intellectual disabilities participated in the Winter Paralympics for the first time, competing in demonstration events in alpine and cross-country skiing. The United States was the overall winner with 45 medals while Canada (which placed ninth) won 12 medals in total.

1994 Paralympic Winter Games in Lillehammer

Lillehammer was the first Paralympic Winter Games to be organized by the International Paralympic Committee, which formed in 1989. Much of Lillehammer's resounding success was due to cooperation in planning: the Olympic and Paralympic Organizing Committees shared the same president.

The enthusiasm and commitment of the Norwegian people was demonstrated in many different ways. The king and queen of Norway were in attendance almost daily. Media coverage of the Games was unprecedented for the winter event. Norwegian television prepared daily reports and 27 television stations from 17 countries bought the footage. The highlights of the opening ceremonies included wheelchair dancing, Norwegian folk dancing and performers from around the world.

Sledge hockey, the Paralympic version of ice hockey, was a new event at the Lillehammer Games, and spectators loved it. Another first: the Norwegian team included a female goalie. Norwegians won 64 medals at the Games, finishing first in the overall standings, while Canada finished in 14th place with 8 medals.

1998 Paralympic Winter Games in Nagano

Nagano hosted the first Paralympic Winter Games held outside Europe. These Winter Games were the largest yet. Thanks to much publicity, more than 150,000 tickets were sold. Tickets for sledge hockey were especially popular. Approximately 20 television stations from 15 countries broadcast feature stories from the Games.

The opening ceremonies were conducted with much pageantry; His Imperial Highness the Crown Prince of Japan declared the Games open.

The Canadian Paralympic team achieved its best performance ever, winning 15 medals, equalling its medal count at the 1998 Olympic Winter Games, while the first-place country, Norway, won 40. The Canadian sledge hockey team beat Sweden, the defending champions, in a thrilling performance, but lost to Norway in the finals.

2002 Paralympic Winter Games in Salt Lake City

Organizers estimated that 210,000 spectators attended these Paralympics. Ten events sold out, including the opening and closing ceremonies. Again volunteers played a key role in the success of the Games. Television coverage was higher than expected because several networks broadcast specials on the Paralympics. The United States had the most medals with 43, and Canada earned 15: six gold medals, four silver and five bronze. Canada's 15 medals were mainly in the alpine skiing events, with Calgary skier Karolina Wisniewska winning four medals.

2006 Paralympic Winter Games in Torino

At the 2006 Paralympic Winter Games in Torino, Italy, Canada won 13 medals — five gold, three silver and five bronze — and placed sixth in the overall medal standings. Gold medals were amassed by Lauren Woolstencroft in skiing, Brian McKeever in cross-country skiing and the Canadian team in wheelchair curling, a sport that made its Paralympic debut in 2006. The highlight of the Games for many was Canada's gold medal win in sledge hockey. After a difficult time in round robin play, the team qualified for the gold medal round, in which they defeated Norway 3–0.

2010 Paralympic Winter Games in Vancouver

The 2010 Paralympic Games were held in Vancouver and Whistler, British Columbia. Though Toronto had hosted a summer version of the event in 1976, it was the first time in history that the Winter Paralympic Games had been held in Canada. Canadians improved on their 2006 showing and excelled in the medal standings, winning 10 gold, 5 silver and 4 bronze medals, and placing third in the medal standings behind Germany and Russia.

Several firsts were achieved during these Games. Brian McKeever had the distinction of being named to both the Olympic and Paralympic teams for cross-country skiing, though he did not compete in the former. Paralympic downhill skier Viviane Forest won five medals and became the first Canadian woman to win gold at both the Summer and Winter Games. (She had previously won gold medals in goalball in both 2000 and 2004.) Lauren Woolstencroft set a record as the Canadian Winter Paralympian with the most gold medals in a single Games, when she won five in the downhill events.

2014 Paralympic Winter Games in Sochi

The Canadian Paralympic Team won seven gold medals (16 medals overall) at the 2014 Winter Games in Sochi, Russia, finishing third in the standings. This was no small feat for a team that had lost a number of veteran athletes to retirement (including Lauren Woolstencroft, who won five gold medals at the Vancouver Games alone). Canada’s impressive standings at Sochi 2014 were the result of strong performances by veterans and rookies alike.

Cross-country skier Brian McKeever won three gold medals at Sochi: the men’s 1 km sprint, 10 km, and 20 km races (visually impaired division). This brought McKeever’s total to 10 gold medals and two silver medals in four Paralympic Winter Games. Teammate Chris Klebl won gold in the men’s 10 km cross-country race (sitting division), while Mark Arendz won the silver medal in the men’s 7.5 km biathlon (standing) and the bronze medal in the 12.5 km biathlon.

Josh Dueck, Canadian flag-bearer at the closing ceremonies, captured the gold in the men’s super-combined and silver in the men’s downhill event (sitting). Paralympic rookie Caleb Brousseau won the bronze medal in the men’s Super-G (sitting) early in the Games. Teammate Kimberly Joines — who had competed at Torino in 2006 but who missed the 2010 Olympics due to an injury —won bronze in the women’s slalom (sitting), her first career Paralympic medal.

One of the standout performances at Sochi came from the youngest member of the Canadian Paralympic team, the 16-year-old Mac Marcoux. Early in the Games, Marcoux won two bronze medals — in the men’s Downhill and men’s Super-G (visually impaired) — and on the second-last day of competition he won gold in the men’s Giant Slalom. His teammate, Chris Williamson, took the bronze in the men’s slalom (visually impaired).

The Canadian curling team, skipped by the genial Jim Armstrong, defended their successful gold medal from the Vancouver Games. This was the third Paralympic gold medal in curling for Sonja Gaudet, and the second for Ina Forrest. For teammates Mark Ideson and Dennis Thiessen, it was their first time representing Canada at the Games. The sledge hockey team defeated Norway to take the bronze.

2018 Paralympic Winter Games in PyeongChang

The Canadian Paralympic Team won 28 total medals (8 gold, 4 silver and 16 bronze) at the 2018 Paralympic Winter Games in PyeongChang, the most medals Canada has ever won at a single Paralympic Winter Games. Canada ranked second in total medals, behind only the United States, which had 36 medals Canadian athletes won the majority of their medals in three sports — cross-country skiing (10 medals), alpine skiing (10 medals) and biathlon (6 medals). As at previous Winter Games, the Canadians reached the podium in the team sports of para ice hockey (silver) and wheelchair curling (bronze).

Opening Ceremonies, 2018 Paralympic Winter Games
Flag bearer Brian McKeever leads Team Canada into the Paralympic Stadium during the opening ceremony of the 2018 Winter Paralympic Games in Pyeongchang, Korea.


The flag bearer for Canada in the opening ceremonies was cross-country skier Brian McKeever. McKeever won three gold medals and one bronze medal in men’s cross-country skiing at the 2018 Games to increase his overall career Paralympic medal total to 17, a record for a Canadian Winter Paralympian. McKeever’s gold medals in PyeongChang came in the men’s 1.5 km classic sprint, the men’s 10 km classic and the men’s 20 km freestyle. He also won bronze in the open relay with sit-skier Collin Cameron.

Brian McKeever, 2018 Paralympic Winter Games
Brian McKeever wins gold in the cross country 20km visually impaired race with guide Graham Nishikawa during the 2018 Paralympic Games in PyeongChang.

Another Canadian star was Mark Arendz, who was the flag bearer for Canada in the closing ceremonies. Arendz led all Canadian Paralympians with six medals (three in biathlon and three in cross-country skiing), including gold in the men’s 15km biathlon standing competition.

Mark Arendz Wins Gold, PyeongChang 2018
Mark Arendez competes in the biathlon and wins gold during the 2018 Paralympic Winter Games in PyeongChang.

It was a breakthrough Paralympic Winter Games for 18-year-old alpine skier Mollie Jepsen, who won four Paralympic Winter Games medals, including gold in the women’s standing super combined. Other Canadian multi-medalists at the 2018 Paralympic Winter Games were alpine skiers Mac Marcoux and Alana Ramsay (two medals each), Collin Cameron (three medals, two in biathlon and one in cross-country skiing), and cross-country skiers Natalie Wilkie (three medals) and Emily Young (two medals).

Mollie Jepsen
Mollie Jepsen skis to the bronze in the giant slalom at the Jeongseon Alpine Centre during the 2018 Paralympic Winter Games in Pyeongchang.
Alana Ramsay
Alana Ramsay skis in the super-G portion of the super combined at the Jeongseon Alpine Centre during the 2018 Paralympic Winter Games in Pyeongchang.
Collin Cameron
Collin Cameron competes in the 15k sitting cross country during the 2018 Paralympic Winter Games in PyeongChang.
Mac Marcoux
Canadian skier Mac Marcoux and guide Robin Femy celebrate their Bronze medal win at the 2014 Paralympic Games in Sochi Russia.
Cross Country Relay Team, 2018 Paralympic Games
Natalie Wilkie, Chris Klebl, Mark Arendz and Emily Young take the silver in the team mixed relay at the Alpensia Biathlon Centre during the 2018 Paralympic Winter Games in Pyeongchang.

Para Ice Hockey

In para ice hockey, Canada went undefeated through the entire preliminary round, trouncing Sweden 17–0, Italy 10–0 and Norway 8–0. In the semifinals, Canada beat the host nation South Korea in another shutout (7–0). The victory set up a showdown with their archrival, the United States, in the gold medal game. Although both countries had reached the podium at every single Paralympic Winter Games since the sport’s debut in 1994, it was the first time they had faced each other in the gold medal game. In the final, Canada jumped out to a 1–0 lead on a goal by Billy Bridges. However, the United States bounced back and tied the game with 38 seconds left in the third period before winning 2–1 in overtime.

Para Ice Hockey, 2018 Paralympic Winter Games
Billy Bridges competes in the gold medal ice game against the USA during the 2018 Paralympic Winter Games.

Wheelchair Curling

In Paralympic wheelchair curling, Team Canada came away with a bronze medal. Canada finished in second place in the round robin with a record of nine wins and two losses, including six straight victories heading into the playoffs. Despite this momentum, Canada lost a controversial 4–3 game to China in the semifinals. In the seventh end, an attempted Canadian takeout of a Chinese stone accidentally hit the wheelchair of Canadian skip Mark Ideson. Chinese skip Wang Haitao decided to keep the stone in the house, create a blank and then win the match with the hammer in the eighth end. Team Canada came back with a 5–3 win over the host country of South Korea in the bronze medal game.

Curling Team, 2018 Paralympic Games
Marie Wright, Dennis Thiessen, Mark Ideson, Ina Forrest Jaime Aneseuw, competes in the bronze medal game of wheelchair curling during the 2018 Paralympic Games.

PyeongChang 2018 Medals

Athlete (s) Sport Event Medal
Mollie Jepsen Alpine Skiing Women’s Super Combined (Standing) Gold
Mac Marcoux Alpine Skiing Men’s Downhill (Visually Impaired) Gold
Kurt Oatway Alpine Skiing Men’s Super Giant Slalom (Sitting) Gold
Mark Arendz Biathlon Men’s 15km Biathlon (Standing) Gold
Brian McKeever Cross-Country Skiing Men’s 1.5 km Classic Sprint (Visually Impaired) Gold
Brian McKeever Cross-Country Skiing Men’s 10 km Classic (Visually Impaired) Gold
Brian McKeever Cross-Country Skiing Men’s 20 km Freestyle (Visually Impaired) Gold
Natalie Wilkie Cross-Country Skiing Women’s 7.5 km Classic (Standing) Gold
Mollie Jepsen Alpine Skiing Women’s Slalom (Standing) Silver
Mark Arendz Biathlon Men’s 7.5 km (Standing) Silver
Mark Arendz
Chris Klebl
Natalie Wilkie
Emily Young
Cross-Country Skiing 4x2.5 km Mixed Relay Silver
Rob Armstrong
Steve Arsenault
Brad Bowden
Billy Bridges
Dom Cozzolino
Adam Dixon
Ben Delaney
James Dunn
James Gemmell
Tyrone Henry
Liam Hickey
Dominic Larocque
Tyler McGregor
Bryan Sholomicki
Corbyn Smith
Corbin Watson
Greg Westlake
Para Ice Hockey Team Silver
Alexis Guimond Alpine Skiing Men’s Giant Slalom (Standing) Bronze
Mollie Jepsen Alpine Skiing Women’s Downhill (Standing) Bronze
Mollie Jepsen Alpine Skiing Women’s Giant Slalom
Mac Marcoux Alpine Skiing Men’s Giant Slalom (Visually Impaired) Bronze
Alana Ramsay Alpine Skiing Women’s Super Combined (Standing) Bronze
Alana Ramsay Alpine Skiing Women’s Super Giant Slalom (Standing) Bronze
Mark Arendz Biathlon Men’s 12.5 km (Standing) Bronze
Collin Cameron Biathlon Men’s 7.5 km (Sitting) Bronze
Collin Cameron Biathlon Men’s 15 km (Sitting) Bronze
Brittany Hudak Biathlon Women’s 12.5 km (Standing) Bronze
Mark Arendz Cross-Country Skiing Men’s 1.5 km Classic Sprint (Standing) Bronze
Mark Arendz Cross-Country Skiing Men’s 10 km Classic (Standing) Bronze
Collin Cameron
Brian McKeever
Cross-Country Skiing Open Relay Bronze
Natalie Wilkie Cross-Country Skiing Women’s 1.5 km Classic Sprint (Standing) Bronze
Emily Young Cross-Country Skiing Women’s 7.5 km Classic (Standing) Bronze
Jamie Anseeuw
Ina Forrest
Mark Ideson
Dennis Thiessen
Marie Wright
Wheelchair Curling Mixed Team Bronze

Increasing Participation and Popularity

Since the first Paralympic Games were held in Rome in 1960, participation and media attention have increased significantly. In 1960, 400 athletes with spinal cord injuries from 23 countries competed. In 2000, 127 countries sent 3,843 elite athletes with a variety of disabilities to the Games in Sydney, Australia. At the Beijing 2008 Summer Games, 3,951 athletes from 147 countries competed. At the London 2012 Summer Games, 4,237 athletes from 164 countries were watched by record crowds: 2.7 million bought tickets to the Games, while 3.8 billion watched the events on television. In 2016, around 2.15 million spectators cheered on 4,333 athletes at the Summer Games in Rio, Brazil.

The Paralympic Winter Games, though considerably smaller, have also increased in terms of participation and popularity. In fact, they doubled in size between 1976 and 1994: while Sweden hosted 16 countries in 1976, Norway hosted 31 countries in 1994. At the Vancouver Paralympics of 2010, over 500 athletes from 44 countries competed in the Games; they were watched by 230,000 ticket holders and 1.6 billion television viewers. Four years later, over 2 billion viewers tuned in to watch the Winter Games in Sochi, Russia, with almost 550 athletes representing 45 countries.

Further Reading

External Links