Search for ""

Displaying 5841-5860 of 5962 results
Article

Women in the Labour Force

Women are considered labour force participants only if they work outside the home. In the past women have been expected to be in the labour force only until they marry; this reflects the historical, idealized notion of a society in which the man is the breadwinner and the woman the homemaker.

Article

Battle of Hudson Bay

The Battle of Hudson Bay took place on 5 September 1697 during King William’s War, the North American theatre of the Nine Years’ War between England and France. Throughout the conflict, French forces tried to capture enemy forts in and around Hudson Bay. One of these was York Factory, a lucrative and important trading post the Hudson’s Bay Company (HBC) built in 1684. The French captured York Factory in 1694, only to have the English take it back a year later. Then, in 1697, a naval battle ensued in Hudson Bay between English and French forces. Captain Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville succeeded in taking York Factory for the French. The fort was later transferred back to the British after the Treaty of Utrecht of 1713. (See also Fur Trade in Canada.)

Article

Vaccination and Vaccine Hesitancy in Canada

Vaccination is the introduction of a vaccine into the body to produce immunity to a disease. Vaccine hesitancy is the refusal or delayed acceptance of vaccination due to fears or anxiety about vaccines. It includes a range of concerns such as uncertainty about the contents of vaccines, their safety and the belief that vaccines are responsible for causing other medical conditions (e.g., autism). Other factors include opposition to state control and infringement on individual liberty, suspicions about the pharmaceutical industry and a declining faith in science and  medicine. In Canada, as in other wealthy countries, vaccine hesitancy has increased in recent years, including resistance to vaccination among some Canadians during the COVID-19 pandemic.

This is the full-length entry about Vaccination and Vaccine Hesitancy in Canada. For a plain-language summary, please see Vaccination and Vaccine Hesitancy in Canada (Plain-Language Summary).

Article

American Revolution and Canada

In 1775 at the start of the American Revolution, rebel forces invaded Canada, occupying Montreal and attacking the town of Quebec. American  privateers also raided Atlantic ports, and revolutionary sympathizers in Nova Scotia attempted a rebellion in that colony. Although the rebel forces were defeated in Canada, the 13 American colonies won their war for independence from Britain, sparking another kind of invasion – a wave of Loyalist emigration that would change the make-up of Canada.

Article

Vaccination and Vaccine Hesitancy in Canada (Plain-Language Summary)

A vaccine is put into the body (usually through injection) to make people immune from a disease. Another word for immune is “protect.” Vaccine hesitancy occurs when people will not take a vaccine, or they wait to take a vaccine. Vaccines prevent millions of deaths each year. But many individuals still do not want to take vaccines. As a consequence, some diseases have reappeared. And it can stop herd immunity. Herd immunity happens when most people are immune from a disease. Herd immunity stops the spread of disease. The World Health Organization says that vaccine hesitancy is a serious threat. In fact, it stated that it is one of the “Top Ten Threats to Global Health.”

This article is a plain-language summary of Vaccination and Vaccine Hesitancy in Canada. If you are interested in reading about this topic in more depth, please see our full-length entry, Vaccination and Vaccine Hesitance in Canada.

Article

Vancouver Feature: Gassy Jack Lands on the Burrard Shore

The following article is a feature from our Vancouver Feature series. Past features are not updated.


When Capt. Jack Deighton and his family pulled their canoe onto the south shore of the Burrrard Inlet in 1867, Jack was on one more search for riches. He had been a sailor on British and American ships, rushed for gold in California and the Cariboo, piloted boats on the Fraser River and ran a tavern in New Westminster. He was broke again, but he wasted no time in starting a new business and building the settlement that would become Vancouver.

Editorial

Vancouver Feature: Fledgling City Incinerated in Minutes

The following article is a feature from our Vancouver Feature series. Past features are not updated.


It was a scorching summer day, but a strong breeze was blowing from Burrard Inlet. Workers were burning off timber they had cleared from Canadian Pacific Railway lands. With a sudden gust, the wood frame buildings of tiny Vancouver were aflame. Twenty-five minutes later, there wasn’t much left of the two-month-old city.

Editorial

Vancouver Feature: Mob Storms Chinatown and Japantown

The following article is a feature from our Vancouver Feature series. Past features are not updated.


The events of September 7, 1907 began with an evening parade down Hastings Street. 5,000 men, white badges fluttering from their buttonholes, marched and listened to fiery speeches on the perils of Asian immigration. Then someone shouted “On to Chinatown!” and all hell broke loose.

Article

Vancouver Feature: The Bay’s Days

The following article is a feature from our Vancouver Feature series. Past features are not updated.


The Hudson’s Bay Company staked its claim to the northeast corner of Georgia and Granville in 1893. Through changes in fashion, technology and politics — as well as some architectural refinements — it has remained there ever since.

Editorial

Vancouver Feature: The Carnegie Library’s Own Tut

The following article is a feature from our Vancouver Feature series. Past features are not updated.


The Carnegie Community Centre is a thriving refuge in the Downtown East Side. It occupies what was once the Carnegie Library — not only the main library for Vancouver, but for years the resting place of the Vancouver Museum’s most popular attraction: Princess Diane, an eternal visitor from Luxor, Egypt. She has proven to be a mummy with a very mysterious past.

Article

Elections of 1979 and 1980

The following article is an editorial written by The Canadian Encyclopedia staff. Editorials are not usually updated.

Calling elections is like Goldilocks visiting the three bears — which political stew will turn out to be too soon, too late, or just right? The elections of 1979 and 1980 illustrate the perils of too late, followed by too soon.

Article

Funeral Practices in Canada

Funeral practices consist of customary observances for the dead and arrangements made for disposition of the body. There is a network of social and legal requirements to be met that usually involve the services of various professionals.