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Dakelh (Carrier)

Dakelh, also known as Carrier, are Dene people traditionally occupying areas in north-central British Columbia. The Carrier name derives from the former custom of a widow carrying the ashes of her deceased husband in a bag during a period of mourning, at which time a ceremonial distribution of goods released her of the obligation. The name is also an English translation of Aghele, the Sekani name for Dakelh people. They call themselves Dakelh (people who “travel upon water”), and add the suffixes -xwoten, “people of” or -t’en, “people” to village names or locations to refer to specific groups (e.g., Tl’azt’en, Wet’suwet’en). In the 2016 census, 7,810 people claimed to have Dakelh ancestry.

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Nicola-Similkameen

The Nicola-Similkameen were an enclave of Athapaskans living in the Nicola and Similkameen river valleys of south-central BC (and, marginally, north-central Washington state), surrounded by Interior Salish.

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Tsimshian

Tsimshian (Tsim-she-yan, meaning “Inside the Skeena River”) is a name that is often broadly applied to Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast, speaking languages of the Tsimshian language family. In the 2016 census, 2,695 people reported speaking a Tsimshian language, with the largest concentration (98.1 per cent) living in British Columbia. Another 5,910 people claimed Tsimshian ancestry.

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Tutchone

The fluctuating fauna and subarctic climate, with warm summers and very cold winters, required a seminomadic way of life. Families gathered in spring and summer fish camps, at autumn meat camps, and clustered for part of the winter near dried food supplies and at good fish lakes.

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Gwich'in

Gwich’in (formerly Kutchin), meaning “one who dwells (in)” or “the inhabitant of,” are Dene (Athabaskan)-speaking Indigenous peoples who live in northwestern North America. These communities comprise the Gwich’in nation, which is often referred to collectively as Dinjii Zhuh. There are thought to be between 7,000 and 9,000 Gwich’in living in communities in Alaska, Yukon and the Northwest Territories.

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Dene

The Dene comprise a far-reaching cultural and linguistic family, stretching from the Canadian North and Alaska to the American southwest. In Canada, the Dene, which means “the people” in their language, comprise a variety of First Nations, some of which include the Denesoline (Chipewyan), Tlicho (Dogrib) and Dinjii Zhuh (Gwich’in). The Dene are also known as Athabascan, Athabaskan, Athapascan or Athapaskan peoples. In the 2016 census, 27,430 people identified as having Dene ancestry.

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Kaska Dena

The Kaska Dena or Denek’éh (often referred to simply as Kaska) are a Dene-speaking people who live in southern Yukon and northern British Columbia, primarily in the communities of Lower Post, Upper Liard (near Watson Lake), Watson Lake and Ross River in the Pelly drainage. In the 2016 census, 1,440 people reported having Kaska ancestry.

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Haisla (Kitamaat)

The contemporary Haisla Band is an amalgamation of two bands, the Kitamaat of upper Douglas Channel and Devastation Channel and the Kitlope of upper Princess Royal Channel and Gardner Canal in BC.

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Yellowknives Dene

Yellowknives Dene or T'atsaot'ine are a band of the Athapaskan-speaking Dene associated with the region encompassed by the Coppermine and Yellowknife rivers, the northeast shore of Great Slave Lake, and northeast into the Barren Grounds.

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Tagish

Traditionally the Tagish were boreal forest hunters and fishers. By about 1800, however, the near extinction of the coastal sea otter owing to the Euroamerican Fur trade led to a demand for fine land animal furs from the interior.

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Tahltan

Tahltan are Athapaskan-speaking Aboriginal people who occupy an area of northwestern British Columbia centered on the Stikine River. Although these people use several terms to refer to themselves, the designation "Tahltan" comes from the language of their neighbours, the Tlingit.

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Abenaki

Abenaki (also referred to as Wobanaki or Wabanaki) take their name from a word in their own language meaning “dawn-land people” or “people from the east.” Their traditional lands included parts of southeastern Quebec, western Maine and northern New England. As of 2017, the total registered population of Abenaki people on the Wôlinak and Odanak reserves in Quebec is 469 and 2,537, respectively.

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The Neutral Confederacy

The Neutral Confederacy was a political and cultural union of Iroquoian nations who lived in the Hamilton-Niagara district of southwestern Ontario and across the Niagara River to western New York before their dispersal by the Seneca in the mid-17th century.

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Ktunaxa (Kootenay)

The Ktunaxa (Kootenay) are an Indigenous people who traditionally occupied territories in southeastern British Columbia, as well as in parts of Alberta, Idaho, Montana and Washington. The term “Kootenay” may be an anglicized form of an old Ktunaxa word. In the 2016 census, 935 people identified as having Ktunaxa ancestry.

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Slavey

Slavey (also Awokanak, Slave, Deh Gah Got'ine or Deh Cho) are a major group of Athapaskan-speaking (or Dene) people living in the boreal forest region of the western Canadian Subarctic. Although there is no equivalent in Dene languages, the term has been adopted by many Dene as a collective term of self-designation when speaking English.

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Dakota

The Dakota (Sioux) occupied what is now western Ontario and eastern Manitoba prior to 1200 AD, and western Manitoba and eastern Saskatchewan prior to 900 AD. After the War of 1812, the Dakota drew closer to their lands in the United States, but never abandoned their northern territory. In 2014, the Sioux Valley Dakota Nation in Manitoba became the first self-governing Indigenous nation on the Plains.