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Listowel

Listowel, ON, incorporated in 1867 as a village and in 1875 as a town, population 9,539 (2021 census), 7,530 (2016 census). Listowel is now part of the town of North Perth (incorporated in 1998). It is located 66 km northwest of Kitchener - Waterloo.

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Battle of the Plains of Abraham

The Battle of the Plains of Abraham (13 September 1759), also known as the Battle of Quebec, was a pivotal moment in the Seven Years’ War and in the history of Canada. A British invasion force led by General James Wolfe defeated French troops under the Marquis de Montcalm, leading to the surrender of Quebec to the British. Both commanding officers died from wounds sustained during the battle. The French never recaptured Quebec and effectively lost control of New France in 1760. At the end of the war in 1763 France surrendered many of its colonial possessions — including Canada — to the British.

(This is the full-length entry about the Battle of the Plains of Abraham. For a plain-language summary, please see Battle of the Plains of Abraham (Plain-Language Summary).)

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Calgary

Calgary, Alberta, incorporated as a city in 1894, population 1,306,784 (2021 census), 1,239,220 (2016 census). The city of Calgary is situated on the Bow River in southern Alberta, about 220 km north of the American border at the meeting point of the Western prairies and mountain foothills. It is the financial centre of western Canada, based on its key role in the development of the region’s oil and gas industry. With its panoramic backdrop of the Rocky Mountains and its historic association with cattle ranching and oil exploration, Calgary is one of Canada’s most identifiable cities.

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Geography of the Northwest Territories

The Northwest Territories includes three main geographic regions: the Arctic Archipelago to the north, the arctic mainland and the Mackenzie Valley area. The arctic mainland, sometimes referred to as the Barren Lands, lies northeast of the treeline, and the Mackenzie Valley area to the west. The geography of the Northwest Territories may also be thought of in terms of Canada’s seven physiographic regions. The territories include four of these regions, namely the Cordillera, the Interior Plains, the Canadian Shield and the Arctic Lands.

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Red River Resistance

The Red River Resistance (also known as the Red River Rebellion) was an uprising in 1869–70 in the Red River Colony. The resistance was sparked by the transfer of the vast territory of Rupert’s Land to the new Dominion of Canada. The colony of farmers and hunters, many of them Métis, occupied a corner of Rupert’s Land and feared for their culture and land rights under Canadian control. The Métis mounted a resistance and declared a provisional government to negotiate terms for entering Confederation. The uprising led to the creation of the province of Manitoba, and the emergence of Métis leader Louis Riel — a hero to his people and many in Quebec, but an outlaw in the eyes of the Canadian government.

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Reserves in the Northwest Territories

There are two reserves in the Northwest Territories. In addition, of the territory’s remaining 32 communities, 28 have a majority Indigenous population. Dene, Inuvialuit and Métis people are the primary Indigenous groups living in these communities. The territory’s two reserves are Hay River Dene 1, held by the Kátł’odeeche First Nation, and Salt River No. 195, held by the Salt River First Nation (see also First Nations in the Northwest Territories). The Northwest Territories differs from much of southern Canada, where several provinces have hundreds of reserves, and where large percentages of First Nations people live in these communities. While Treaty 8 and Treaty 11 — which taken together cover most of the territory — provided for reserves, none were created in the years immediately following their signing. The reasons for the limited number of reserves in such a large region are rooted in a complicated history.

Article

Saint Andrews (NB)

Saint Andrews, NB, incorporated as a town in 1903, population 1889 (2011c), 1798 (2006c). The Town of Saint Andrews is located at the mouth of the ST CROIX RIVER in the southwest corner of New Brunswick.

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Métis Experiences at Residential School

Although the first residential schools in Canada were established with the intention of assimilating First Nations children into Euro-Canadian culture, Métis and Inuit children were also institutionalized in such facilities. Métis children experienced similar day-to-day conditions to those of other students in residential schools, but they were often considered “outsiders” by their peers and administrators. This perception affected their experiences within these institutions in particular ways.


Article

Music at Western University

The Faculty of Music at Western University (known legally as the University of Western Ontario) offers a full range of undergraduate and graduate degree programs. Located in London, Ontario, it is one of the largest music schools in Canada. Music education at the university began in 1934 and evolved into an affiliated music school in 1942. The Faculty of Music was established in 1968 and was renamed the Don Wright Faculty of Music in 2002. In 2014, the faculty had more than 120 members (35 in Music Education, 63 in performance, and 32 in Research and Composition) and an enrolment of more than 600 students.

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Indigenous Names of Rivers and Lakes in Canada

The names of many rivers and lakes in Canada have Indigenous origins. These bodies of water are named for Indigenous people, places, and aspects of Indigenous culture. Some of these lakes and rivers still bear the original name given to them by Indigenous people. Others have been renamed using an Indigenous word as a means of recognizing Indigenous history and working toward reconciliation. This list article explores the Indigenous names of five rivers and five lakes in Canada. (See also Longest Rivers in Canada and Largest Lakes in Canada.)

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Manitoba

Manitoba is a Canadian province located at the centre of the country, bounded by Saskatchewan to the west, Hudson Bay and Ontario to the east, Nunavut to the north, and North Dakota and Minnesota to the south. The province was founded on parts of the traditional territories of the Cree, Anishinaabe, Oji-Cree, Dakota/Lakota (Sioux) and Dene peoples, and on the homeland of the Métis Nation. The land is now governed treaties 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 10. As of the 2016 census, Manitoba had 1,278,365 residents, making it the fifth most populous province or territory in Canada. Manitoba joined Confederation in 1870, and its capital city, Winnipeg, was incorporated shortly thereafter, in 1873. Heather Stefanson is the province’s current premier, leading a majority Progressive Conservative government.

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Muskoka

District Municipality of Muskoka, Ontario, incorporated in 1971, permanent population 60,599 (2016 census), 58,017 (2011 census); estimated seasonal population 85,163 in 2016. Muskoka is an iconic area of Ontario’s cottage country located approximately 200 km north of Toronto. A destination for seasonal residents and tourists who have been drawn by its natural beauty since the late 1800s, the district has equally been home to generations of permanent residents.

Article

Reserves in Nova Scotia

There are 42 reserves in Nova Scotia, held by 13 First Nations (see First Nations in Nova Scotia). Nova Scotia is one of just two provinces, the other being Prince Edward Island, that is part of the traditional territory of only one Indigenous people. In both cases, it is the Mi'kmaq. In 2020, there were 17,895 registered Mi’kmaq in Nova Scotia, about 63 per cent of whom (11,202 people) lived on reserve. Reserves in Nova Scotia vary in size from over 3,500 hectares to less than one, though almost every First Nation has more than one land tract.

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Reserves in Ontario

There are 207 reserves in Ontario, held by 127 of Ontario’s 128 First Nations (see also First Nations in Ontario). (Beaverhouse First Nation, first recognized by the federal government as a First Nation in 2022, does not have reserve land.) In 2020, there were 221,822 registered Indians living in Ontario, about 44 per cent of whom lived on reserves. Reserves in Ontario are held by AnishinaabeCree, Oji-Cree, Haudenosaunee, Delaware and Algonquin peoples.

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Reserves in Alberta

There are 138 reserves in Alberta, held primarily by the province’s 46 First Nations (see also First Nations in Alberta). A handful of these reserves are held by First Nations based outside the province, namely Salt River First Nation and Smith’s Landing First Nation, whose administrative headquarters are in the Northwest Territories. Onion Lake Cree Nation, based in Saskatchewan, holds a reserve that straddles the Alberta-Saskatchewan border. In 2020, there were 133,051 Registered Indians living in Alberta, 60 per cent of whom lived on reserves. First Nations in Alberta are typically grouped into three areas based on Treaties 6, 7 and 8 (see also Numbered Treaties). While historically the Canadian government assigned reserves to First Nations people and not Métis or Inuit, Alberta is the only province in which Métis people were given a collective land base (see Métis Settlements).

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National War Memorial

The National War Memorial in Ottawa was originally built to commemorate Canada's sacrifice in the First World War (1914–18). It now honours all who have served Canada in wartime.

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Six Nations of the Grand River

Six Nations of the Grand River, Ontario, is the common name for both a reserve and a Haudenosaunee First Nation. The reserve, legally known as Six Nations Indian Reserve No. 40, is just over 182 km2, located along the Grand River in southwestern Ontario. As of 2019, Six Nations has 27,559 registered band members, 12,892 of whom live on-reserve. Six Nations is the largest First Nations reserve in Canada by population, and the second largest by size. There are several individual communities within the reserve, the largest of which is Ohsweken, with a population of approximately 1,500. (See also Reserves in Ontario.)

Six Nations is home to the six individual nations that form the Hodinöhsö:ni’ Confederacy (Haudenosaunee). These nations are the Kanyen’kehaka (Mohawk), Onyota’a:ka (Oneida), Onöñda’gega’ (Onondaga), Gayogohono (Cayuga), Onöndowága’ (Seneca) and Skaru:reh (Tuscarora).

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Kluane National Park and Reserve

Kluane National Park and Reserve (established 1976, 21,980 km2) is an area of unclimbed peaks, vast ice fields, clear lakes, glaciers and spectacular wildlife. Tucked in the southwest corner of the Yukon Territory, 150 km west of Whitehorse, Kluane (pronounced kloo-AH-nee) contains Canada’s highest peak, Mount Logan. It is named after Yukon’s largest lake, which borders the park. The park and park reserve, together with Tatshenshini-Alsek Wilderness Provincial Park in British Columbia and Glacier Bay and Wrangell-St. Elias national parks in Alaska, form an international UNESCO World Heritage Site covering over 98,391 km2.