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Reserves in Canada (Plain-Language Summary)

A reserve is land set aside by the Canadian government for use by First Nations. Reserves are managed under the Indian Act. Reserves are places where First Nations often live. However, some reserves are only for practices like hunting. Not all First Nations have reserve lands. There are reserves in every province in Canada, but most are in rural or remote areas. Few reserves have been established in the territories.

(This is a plain-language summary of Reserves in Canada. If you are interested in reading about this topic in more depth, please see our full-length entry, Reserves in Canada.)

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Caledon

Caledon, Ontario, incorporated as a city in 1974, population 76,581 (2021 census), 66,502 (2016 census). Northwest of Toronto, Caledon shares its border with nine other municipalities. Together with Brampton and Mississauga, it creates the Region of Peel. Up until recent decades, the area has been relatively rural. Today, however, it is in the midst of urbanization.

Throughout history, the Caledon area has been home to different Indigenous groups, namely the Wendat (Huron), Tionontati (Petun), Haudenosaunee and Anishinaabeg, including the Mississaugas of the Credit First Nation. The land is part of the Ajetance Purchase (1818).

Article

St. Lawrence River

The St. Lawrence River is a grand river and estuary, which together with the Great Lakes forms a hydrographic system that penetrates 3,058 km into North America. The river proper, about 1,197 km long, issues from Lake Ontario, flows northeast past Montreal and Quebec City to the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The route of early explorers and the main axis of New France, the St. Lawrence River figured prominently in Canada's early history, and it remains the focus of settlement for much of the province of Quebec. It is still the most important commercial waterway in Canada, as well as a source of electric power and natural beauty. (See also St Lawrence Lowland.)

Memory Project

Jack Mussellam (Primary Source)

Read and listen to M. Mussellam's veteran's testimony below.

Please be advised that Memory Project primary sources may deal with personal testimony that reflect the speaker’s recollections and interpretations of events. Individual testimony does not necessarily reflect the views of the Memory Project and Historica Canada.

Article

Brampton

Brampton, Ontario, incorporated as a city in 1974, population 656,480 (2021 census), 593,638 (2016 census). The city of Brampton was created by the amalgamation of the Town of Brampton, the southern half of Chinguacousy Township, and portions of the Town of Mississauga and Toronto Gore Township. Located northwest of Toronto, Brampton is part of the Regional Municipality of Peel. It is located within the Credit and Humber River watersheds. Throughout history, the Brampton area has been home to different Indigenous groups, namely the Wendat (Huron), Haudenosaunee and Anishinaabeg, including the Mississaugas of the Credit. The land is covered by the Ajetance Purchase (1818).

Article

Louisbourg

In the 18th century, Louisbourg was a fortified town and an important strategic capital in the French colony of Île Royale (Cape Breton Island). It was the scene of two major military sieges in the Anglo-French wars for supremacy in North America. The fall of Louisbourg to the British in 1758 paved the way for the capture of Québec and the end of French rule in North America. Today, Louisbourg is a national historic site and a popular tourist destination in Cape Breton.

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Prince Edward Island

Prince Edward Island is Canada's smallest province, making up just 0.1 per cent of Canada’s total land area. It is situated in the Gulf of St Lawrence and separated from Nova Scotia and New Brunswick by the Northumberland Strait.

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Newfoundland and Labrador

Newfoundland, the youngest of the Canadian provinces, joined Confederation in 1949. Some portion of its coast was undoubtedly one of the first parts of the continent seen by Europeans. Its total area is 405, 720 km2, of which Labrador makes up almost three-quarters (294,330 km2).

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Yukon

Lying in the northwestern corner of Canada and isolated by rugged mountains, the Yukon borders Alaska to the west, British Columbia to the south and the Northwest Territories to the east. Historically, it is indelibly associated with the great Klondike Gold Rush.

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Nova Scotia

Nova Scotia is Canada’s second-smallest province (following Prince Edward Island) and is located on the southeastern coast of the country. The province includes Cape Breton, a large island northeast of the mainland.

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Northwest Territories

The Northwest Territories lie northwest of central Canada, bordered to the east by Nunavut, to the west by the Yukon and to the south by the northeastern corner of British Columbia, as well as the entire northern borders of Alberta and Saskatchewan.

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New Brunswick

New Brunswick is one of three provinces collectively known as the "Maritimes." Joined to Nova Scotia by the narrow Chignecto Isthmus and separated from Prince Edward Island by the Northumberland Strait, New Brunswick forms the land bridge linking this region to continental North America.

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Nunavut

Nunavut, which translates from the Inuktitut dialect of the Eastern Arctic Inuit as "Our Land," is a Canadian territory.

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Quebec

Quebec is the largest Canadian province. At 1.5 million km², its territory accounts for 15.5 per cent of Canada's total area. The province shares borders with Ontario, New Brunswick, and Newfoundland and Labrador.

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Ontario

Ontario is Canada's most populous and second-largest province. It stretches from Canada's southernmost point at Middle Island in Lake Erie in the south, to the Manitoba-Ontario border on Hudson Bay in the north, and from the banks of the St. Lawrence River in the east, to the Manitoba border in the west.

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National Parks

Canada's national parks are protected areas established under federal legislation to preserve Canada's natural heritage.

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Manitoba

Sometimes referred to as the “keystone” province because of its position in the centre of the country, Manitoba is bounded by Nunavut and Hudson Bay to the north, Ontario to the east, the United States to the south and Saskatchewan to the west.

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Saskatchewan

Saskatchewan is part of the Prairie region and is the only province with entirely artificial boundaries. It is bordered by the US to the south, the Northwest Territories to the north, and Manitoba and Alberta to the east and west respectively.