Browse "Earth Sciences"

Displaying 21-40 of 45 results
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Geology

Earth is 70.8% covered by water, but only with the development of sonar techniques has it become possible to describe the solid earth below the oceans. With increasingly sophisticated satellite observations, relatively fine structural details (eg, areas of volcanic activity) can be seen.

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Geomatics Canada

Geomatics Canada, along with the Geological Survey of Canada and the Polar Continental Shelf Project, became part of the Earth Sciences Sector of the Department of Natural Resources in the mid-1990s. It was formerly known as the Surveys, Mapping and Remote Sensing Sector.

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Geomorphology

Geomorphology is related to GEOLOGY because of the importance of long timescales, tectonic deformation of Earth's crust (seePLATE TECTONICS), and rock and sediment properties; and to physical geography through its association with CLIMATE, BIOGEOGRAPHY, SOIL SCIENCE, and HYDROLOGY.

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Glaciation

Glaciation is the formation, movement and recession of glaciers. Glaciation was much more extensive in the past, when much of the world was covered in large, continental ice sheets. Currently, glaciers cover about 10 per cent of the world's land area (14.9 million km2).

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Ice Age

Ice Age, the Pleistocene epoch of geologic time, during which periodic, extensive glacial activity occurred in many parts of the world.

Macleans

Kobe Earthquake

Bridges, train trestles and elevated highways collapsed, sending hapless passengers plummeting to their deaths. Apartment buildings crumpled and fell, crushing terrified occupants still huddled in their beds.

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Maritime Archaeology

  British ColumbiaIn BC, most work has been carried out by the Underwater Archaeological Society of British Columbia (UASBC), a large, successful and mostly avocational group that was formed in 1975. The UASBC's has published seven regional shipwreck inventories.

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Mediterranean Archaeology

ItalyThe UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA has been active in southern Italy for several decades, in the ancient areas of Lucania and Apulia. This work started with the excavation of several indigenous pre-Roman sites, such as Botromagno, Monte Irsi and Roccagloriosa.

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Metamorphic Rock

Metamorphic rock is one of the 3 major classes of rock comprising the Earth's crust, the others being SEDIMENTARY and IGNEOUS ROCKS. Metamorphic rock has been transformed, while in the solid state, by pressure, temperature and deformation.

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Meteorite Craters

 The solar system contains many objects smaller than the planets (or their satellites) travelling in individual orbits about the SUN; space between the planets also contains myriad dust grains in the micron size range.

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Miguasha Fossils

 In addition to fishes, a few INVERTEBRATES, such as small CRUSTACEANS, worms and eurypterids, which are giant cousins of land scorpions, lived at the bottom of the estuary.

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Muskeg

Muskeg (from Cree maskek and Ojibwe mashkiig, meaning “grassy bog”) is a type of northern landscape characterized by a wet environment, vegetation and peat deposits. Chiefly used in North America, the term muskeg escapes precise scientific definition. It encompasses various types of wetlands found in the boreal zone, including bogs, fens, swamps and mires. In Canada, muskeg and other peatlands cover up to 1.2 million km2, or 12 per cent of the country’s surface.

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Natural Gas in Canada

Natural gas ranks among the fastest-growing energy sources in Canada and is seen by many in the energy industry as a game-changer, a comparatively clean, low-cost and versatile fuel. It can directly generate power and heat and can be chemically altered to produce a wide range of useful commodity chemicals. It burns cleaner and more efficiently than other fossil fuels, releasing significantly fewer harmful pollutants into the atmosphere. Natural gas is colorless, odourless, shapeless, lighter than air and contains a mixture of several hydrocarbon gases, which are organic compounds consisting of some combination of hydrogen and carbon molecules.

The primary consumers of natural gas are the industrial (54.1 per cent), residential (26.6 per cent) and commercial sectors (19.3 per cent). Canada is the fifth largest natural gas producer after the United States, Russia, Iran and Qatar. Currently, all of Canada’s natural gas exports go to the United States through a network of pipelines, making Canada the largest foreign source of US natural gas imports. At the end of 2016, Canada had 76.7 trillion cubic feet of proven natural gas reserves and had produced 152 billion cubic metres of natural gas that year. It is forecasted that global natural gas consumption will double by 2035.

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Navigation

Evidence suggests that the Phoenicians, Arabs and ancient Greeks were familiar with the use of nighttime positions of stars and constellations to aid in marine navigation, but this knowledge was lost to Europeans in the Dark Ages and only regained after about the year 1000 from the Arabs.

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Palaeontology

Palaeontology is the study of fossils, gives us knowledge of past life, helps us understand the nature of ancient organisms and provides information about the composition of the biomass of past times.

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Palliser Expedition

The explorers amassed astronomical, meteorological, geological and magnetic data, and described the country, its fauna and flora, its inhabitants and its "capabilities" for settlement and transportation.

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Palynology

Palynology is the study of spores and pollen, has many applications in botany, geology and medicine.