Elections are a process in which Canadian citizens express their preferences about who will represent and govern them. Those preferences are combined to decide which candidates will become Members of Parliament. Elections are fundamental to the operation of democracy in Canada as they are the central means by which citizens grant authority to those who govern them.
Political parties are organizations that seek to control government and participate in public affairs by nominating candidates for elections. Since there are typically multiple groups that wish to do this, political parties are best thought of as part of a party system, which is the way political parties conduct themselves in order to structure political competition.
The Williams Treaties were signed in October and November 1923 by the governments of Canada and Ontario and by seven First Nations of the Chippewa of Lake Simcoe and the Mississauga of the north shore of Lake Ontario. As the last historic land cession treaties in Canada, these agreements transferred over 20,000 km2 of land in southcentral Ontario to the Crown; in exchange, Indigenous signatories received one-time cash payments. While Chippewa and Mississauga peoples argue that the Williams Treaties also guaranteed their right to hunt and fish on the territory, the federal and provincial governments have interpreted the treaty differently, resulting in legal disputes and ongoing negotiations between the three parties about land rights.
The Wildrose Party was a political party in Alberta that promoted fiscal conservatism and rural values. In the 2015 provincial election the party, once known as the Wildrose Alliance, was elected as the official opposition. It also replaced the former governing Progressive Conservative Association of Alberta as the main conservative voice in the legislature. In 2017, the party merged with the Progressive Conservatives to form the United Conservative Party under the leadership of Jason Kenney, a former federal cabinet minister.
The Saskatchewan Party is a provincial political party formed in 1997 by a coalition of Liberals and Progressive Conservatives seeking to offer a viable governing alternative to the New Democratic Party (NDP). Since 2007, the Saskatchewan Party has won three straight elections, holding power in the province under leader and Premier Brad Wall. In 2018, Wall stepped down and was replaced as premier and party leader by Scott Moe, who served in Wall’s executive council from 2014 to 2017.
Québec solidaire is a progressive, left-wing provincial political party officially formed on 4 February 2006 in Montreal. Its key principles and values are the environment, social justice, feminism, alter-globalization, democracy, pluralism, sovereignty and solidarity. After four general elections, Québec solidaire has elected three members to the National Assembly of Quebec and is the fourth largest party. Since May 2017, its parliamentary spokespersons are Manon Massé and Gabriel Nadeau-Dubois.
The Parti Québécois (PQ) is a nationalist political party formed in Québec in 1968 through the merger of the Mouvement souveraineté-association and the Ralliement national. René Lévesque was the PQ’s first leader and held that position until 1985. The party was elected to its first term in office in 1976 and went on to hold two referendums on Québec sovereignty: one in 1980 and the other in 1995.
Bloc QuébécoisThe Bloc Québécois is a federal political party that was created officially on 15 June 1991 (registered by Elections Canada on 11 September 1993). It currently runs candidates in 75 Quebec ridings. Founded as a parliamentary movement composed of Québec MPs who left the Conservative and Liberal parties after the failure of the Meech Lake Accord, the party promotes Quebec's interests and Quebec sovereignty in the House of Commons. The Bloc was led by former federal Conservative cabinet minister Lucien Bouchard before he left to become leader of the Parti Québécois and premier of Quebec in January 1996. Gilles Duceppe played a significant role in the direction of this party, remaining its leader for nearly fifteen years. On March 18, 2017, Martine Ouellet was elected head of the Bloc Québécois.
The local undertakers were standing by ready to claim the body. And Stanley Faulders grave had already been dug in a cemetery filled with unmarked crosses and plain white headstones in an unfenced field in Huntsville, Tex. On Thursday, the day the 61-year-old auto mechanic from Jasper, Alta.
The most visible and recognized part of the Canadian Constitution, the Charter of Rights and Freedoms, guarantees the rights of individuals by enshrining those rights, and certain limits on them, in the highest law of the land. Since its enactment in 1982, the Charter has created a social and legal revolution in Canada, expanding the rights of minorities, transforming the nature of criminal investigations and prosecutions, and subjecting the will of Parliament and the legislatures to judicial scrutiny—an ongoing source of controversy.
The Council of the Federation (COF, also known as “Canada’s Premiers”) is the organization which supports top-level provincial-territorial (PT) relations in Canada. It was founded in 2003 as a formalization of the Annual Premiers’ Conference, which had occurred annually from 1960 to 2003. Although frequently focused on the federal government, COF also serves as an increasingly important forum for provincial-territorial relations (separate from the federal government) in Canada.