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Socialism is a political doctrine that criticizes the existence of social, economic and political inequality in society. Seeking to lessen class inequality, socialists call for a redistribution of power from the affluent owners to the working class.



In May 1983 British Columbians voted the Social Credit Party, headed by William BENNETT, into office. Two months later, on July 7, the Socreds introduced their so-called Restraint Budget, accompanied by 26 prospective bills.



Under Canada’s constitutional monarchy, the sovereign is head of state, the legal foundation of the executive branch of government and one part of Parliament — along with the Senate and House of Commons. The current sovereign of Canada is Queen Elizabeth II.



Sovereignty is an abstract legal concept. It also has political, social and economic implications. In strictly legal terms, sovereignty describes the power of a state to govern itself and its subjects. In this sense, sovereignty is the highest source of the law. With Confederation and the passage of the British North America Act, 1867, Canada’s Parliament was still legally under the authority of the British Parliament. By 1949, Canada had become fully sovereign in relation to Great Britain. This was due to landmark legislation such as the Statute of Westminster (1931). The Constitution Act, 1982 swept away Britain’s leftover authority. Questions of sovereignty have also been raised by Indigenous peoples in Canada and by separatists in Quebec. The latter, for a time, championed the concept of sovereignty-association.


Speech from the Throne

Speech from the Throne reveals to the SENATE and the HOUSE OF COMMONS the work the ministers propose for the session of Parliament then beginning. Historically, in England, the speech sometimes explained why Parliament had been called into session when many years had elapsed between sessions.



Stornoway, located at 541 Acacia Ave in the Village of Rockcliffe Park, near Ottawa, is the official residence of the LEADER OF THE OPPOSITION . A simple and commodious 2-storey, stucco-sheathed house located in spacious


Symbols of Authority

One of the earliest signs of authority (the right to enforce obedience) was probably a wooden club, in which symbolism grew directly out of practical application: the humble club became both an instrument by which power was exercised and (consequently) a symbol of authority.



Tax is an enforced contribution exacted pursuant to legislative authority in order to raise revenue for a public purpose. The first recorded tax in Canada appears to date back to 1650 when an export tax of 50% on all beaver pelts and 10% on moose belts was levied on the residents of New France.


The Stanley Flag

Prime Minister Lester Pearson and John Matheson, one of his Liberal MPs, are widely considered the fathers of the Canadian flag. Their names will be front and centre in 2015 during the tributes and celebrations to mark the 50th anniversary of the flag's creation.


The White Paper, 1969

The 1969 White Paper (formally known as the “Statement of the Government of Canada on Indian Policy, 1969”) was a Canadian government policy paper that attempted to abolish previous legal documents pertaining to Indigenous peoples in Canada, including the Indian Act and treaties, and assimilate all “Indian” peoples under the Canadian state.


Throne Speech 1996

As Prime Minister Jean Chrétien's government tried to evoke a new era of Canadian team spirit in the House of Commons last week, it was no coincidence that the one premier who came to listen was Captain Canada himself.