Browse "Colonial"

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Fort Frontenac

Frontenac reoccupied the site, rebuilding the fort in 1695, and the post became known as Fort Frontenac. Reinforced by troops under François-Charles de Bourlamaque and later the Marquis de MONTCALM, it nevertheless fell to the British under John Bradstreet in August 1758.

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Fort Haldimand

Fort Haldimand, located on the west promontory of Carleton Island at the east end of Lake Ontario, about 16 km offshore from Kingston, Ontario, was built by the British in 1778 during the American Revolution.

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Fort Henry

Fort Henry, KINGSTON, Ont, was originally built during the WAR OF 1812 on Point Henry, beside Lake Ontario, to guard the outlet to the St Lawrence River and the Kingston Navy Yards.

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Fort Michilimackinac

Fort Michilimackinac (Michigan) refers to three distinct military posts at the Straits of Mackinac between lakes Huron and Michigan. French explorers arrived by 1634, establishing a mission on the north mainland in 1671 and a fort in 1690 (St Ignace, Mich).

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Fort Niagara

Throughout the American Revolution, Fort Niagara was the major British supply depot for the Loyalist provincial troops, Butler's Rangers, and Seneca allies who raided rebel supply lines.

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Fort Ticonderoga

Fort Ticonderoga (Carillon), a "place between the waters," is strategically situated at the confluence of Lakes Champlain and George in upper New York.

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Garrison Towns

In 1662 Placentia had a garrison of 25 French soldiers. Its growing importance as the centre of the French fishing fleet meant an increase of its garrison to about 150 by 1704. It was fear of this garrison town that provoked the first British garrison at St John's in 1696.

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Halifax Citadel

The general introduction of rifled artillery (with greater range and accuracy than earlier guns) shortly after completion of the Citadel rendered the costly installation obsolescent. It was partially rearmed in the 1860s and 1870s, and continued in use as a barracks into the 20th century.

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Lachine Raid

French westward expansion in the 1670s and 1680s cut off the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) Confederacy from new sources of beaver and threatened New York's fur trade.

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Martello Tower

The 16 squat, flat-roofed towers built in British North America from 1796 to 1848 were distributed as follows: Halifax (5), Saint John (1), Québec City (4) and Kingston (6). The towers were built during times of tension with the United States.

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Ministère de la Marine

The Ministère de la Marine is the section of the French government that administered Canada during its last 100 years as a French colony. The Marine, variously described as a ministry, department, or secretariat of state, combined administration of the navy, the colonies and seaborne trade.

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Privateering During the War of 1812

Privateering refers to government licensing of private vessels to wage war. In Canada, privateering dated back to Samuel Argall's attack in 1613 on PORT-ROYAL, Acadia. From 1756 to 1815 British privateers sailed from Halifax, Liverpool and other Atlantic ports, cruising as far south as Venezuela.

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Seven Years' War

The Seven Years' War (1756–63) was the first global war, fought in Europe, India, and America, and at sea. In North America, imperial rivals Britain and France struggled for supremacy. Early in the war, the French (aided by Canadian militia and Aboriginal allies) defeated several British attacks and captured a number of British forts.

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Seven Years’ War (Plain-Language Summary)

 The Seven Years’ War (1756–63) was the first global war. In North America, Britain and France fought each other with the help of Indigenous allies. At the end of the war, France gave Canada (Quebec) and Ile Royale (Cape Breton) to Britain, among other territories. This is the reason that Canada has a British monarch but three founding peoples — French, British and Indigenous.

(This article is a plain-language summary of the Seven Years’ War. If you are interested in reading about this topic in more depth, please see our full-length entry Seven Years’ War.)

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Ships of the War of 1812

The war on the water was an essential, if not the most important, aspect of the WAR OF 1812. Great Britain was obviously at a disadvantage geographically when trying to defend its colony Canada in a conflict with the United States.