Improvement District, a municipal corporation whose powers are exercised by a trustee or board of trustees appointed by the provincial government. Unlike most municipalities, which are subject to the supervision of both the province and local electors, trustees are under provincial supervision only.
The leader of the Opposition was first recognized by statute in 1905 and given the same salary and allowances as CABINET ministers. The leader of the Opposition is a parliamentarian hoping to become PRIME MINISTER and is the leading critic of government programs and policies.
Members of provincial and territorial governments are elected to single-representative constituencies (or “ridings”), which have different boundaries to those of federal Members of Parliament. They are most often elected to four year terms, except in Nova Scotia and Yukon, where members sit for up to five years. Candidates run as members of political parties or as independents. Any Canadian citizen who is at least 18 years of age can run for office in the province or territory in which they have lived for a set period of time.
The party whip is a member of a party caucus who ensures that the number of MPs in the legislature, or at committee meetings, is adequate to win a vote if one is called. The division bells in the HOUSE OF COMMONS ring until whips are satisfied that sufficient members of their own party are present.
House Leader, nonofficial title of MP nominated by each party to serve as head strategist and tactician in the House of Commons. The government House leader, a Cabinet member with the honorific title of president of the Privy Council, negotiates among parties about the Commons timetable.
Decentralization, in federal countries, occurs when there is a substantial sharing of power, authority, financial resources and political support among federal, provincial and local GOVERNMENTS. The less concentrated these resources are in the central government, the more decentralized the system.
Launched in 1928 by prominent Canadians Sir Robert Borden, Sir Arthur Currie, John W. Dafoe and Sir Joseph Flavelle, the Canadian Institute of International Affairs (CIIA) is a national, non-partisan, non-governmental organization dedicated to the discussion and analysis of international affairs.
Farm Credit Corporation (FCC) is Canada's largest agricultural term lender and is dedicated exclusively to serving the financial needs of Canadian farmers. Established in 1959 under the Farm Credit Act, the federal Crown agency succeeded the Canadian Farm Loan Board, in operation since 1929.