The Third Option was a 1972 pronouncement by Mitchell SHARP, secretary of state for external affairs, calling for a lessening of US economic and cultural influence on Canada. It appeared in a paper by Sharp, "Canada-U.S. Relations: Options for the Future" (International Perspectives, 1972).
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The party whip is a member of a party caucus who ensures that the number of MPs in the legislature, or at committee meetings, is adequate to win a vote if one is called. The division bells in the HOUSE OF COMMONS ring until whips are satisfied that sufficient members of their own party are present.
In 1981 VIA cancelled or reduced numerous routes in an attempt to make passenger service more efficient. Services in parts of the country were seriously affected and the Liberal government was widely criticized. A nonconfidence vote over the issue in October 1981 was won by the government.
The NCC is governed by a Commission (essentially a board of directors) composed of the chairman, vice-chairman and 13 other members appointed by the Governor in Council. Members come from across Canada and from the National Capital Region, an area of 4715 km2 located in Ontario and Québec.